Predictable And Unpredictable Life Events Essay Topics

Abstract

Background In recent years there have been numerous attempts to define and measure happiness in various contexts and pertaining to a wide range of disciplines, ranging from neuroscience and psychology to philosophy, economics and social policy. This article builds on recent work by economists who attempt to estimate happiness regressions using large random samples of individuals in order to calculate monetary ‘compensating amounts’ for different life ‘events’.

Methods We estimate happiness regressions using the ‘major life event’ and ‘happiness’ data from the British Household Panel Survey.

Results The data and methods used in this article suggest that in contrast to living states such as ‘being married’, it is more events such as ‘starting a new relationship’ that have the highest positive effect on happiness. This is closely followed by ‘employment-related gains’ (in contrast to employment status). Also, women who become pregnant on average report higher than average levels of subjective happiness (in contrast to ‘being a parent’). Other events that appear to be associated with happiness according to our analysis include ‘personal education-related events’ (e.g. starting a new course, graduating from University, passing exams) and ‘finance/house related events’ (e.g. buying a new house). On the other hand, the event that has the highest negative impact upon happiness according to our analysis is ‘the end of my relationship’ closely followed by ‘death of a parent’. Adverse health events pertaining to the parents of the respondents also have a high negative coefficient and so does an employment-related loss.

Conclusion The analysis presented in this article suggests that what matters the most in people's lives in Britain is to have good dynamic interpersonal relationships and to be respected at work with that respect being constantly renewed. These ‘goods’ are as much reflected through dynamic events as static situations. Relationships at work appear to be of a similar order of importance to those at home. Other factors that contribute to higher than average levels of subjective happiness, at least at a superficial level, include delaying death and keeping illness at bay, having babies, buying homes and cars and passing exams. The analysis presented here also suggests that people should not expect too much from their holidays and wider families. The findings presented in this article may help us to understand a little better the propensity for groups to be more or less happy and may help us to begin to better understand the importance of the dynamics of social context—the context in which we come to terms with reward and loss.

Happiness, well-being, major life events, British household panel survey

Introduction

Human perceptions of happiness vary and depend on a wide range of factors. Efforts to define and understand happiness date back long ago to include, for instance, Buddhist traditions and practices. However, the origins of western thought in this area can be found only a few decades later than Buddhist scripts in the work of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. In particular, Aristotle, in his work Nicomachean Ethics, attempted to give an answer to the question: what is the good life for man?1,,2 For Aristotle (born almost exactly a century after Gautama Buddha died), happiness is the highest good achieved by human action. Aristotle suggested that the attainment of happiness involves the satisfaction of the human desires that are necessary to live a full and rich life.1 However, Aristotle believed that the question of what is a full and rich life cannot be answered for an individual in abstraction from the society in which they live, in contrast to some Buddhist traditions. The meaning of happiness varies through space and time and there have been numerous attempts to understand and define happiness since the work of Aristotle. Attempting to determine the factors that make individuals happy has long been represented as a research challenge that spans many academic disciplines. There have been numerous recent studies of happiness and well-being issues, often from very different perspectives. On the one hand there are critiques of the idea that happiness can be measured such as by Sumner3 who argues that happiness is subjective and that no objective theory about the ordinary concept of happiness has the slightest plausibility. Nevertheless, there have been several researchers who suggested that happiness can be measured4–7 and should be measured,8 and there has been an ongoing debate over how to measure it.9–11

In an epidemiological context, it would be of practical use to have good measurements of happiness and well-being and to be able to also determine what the key psychosocial and environmental factors affecting well-being are. Amongst these factors are major events and experiences that occur throughout the life course. Such events have often been classified on the basis of their association with depression and ill-health and of how stressful they are in various contexts.12–17 Cumulative exposure to ‘negative’ major life events throughout the life course may be linked to increased risks of chronic unhappiness, mental illness and premature mortality.18 In contrast, cumulative lifetime exposure to ‘positive’ major life events may be associated with increased probabilities of sustained happiness, good health and well-being.19

Recent research reported in this journal20 aimed at measuring the importance of different life events expressed in the form of money, in determining personal happiness, using data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), a representative sample of some 10 000 individuals living in Britain in the 1990s (see Taylor et al.21 for more details). This survey includes a question that asks whether the respondents have been recently unhappy or depressed, and a number of the straightforward questions that seek to measure individual contentment such as whether respondents feel ‘able to enjoy normal day-to-day activities’; whether they ‘have been losing self-confidence’; whether ‘they are losing sleep over worry’.

Clark and Oswald20 fitted regression models of happiness that measured the impact of different life events upon human well-being. In particular, using pooled data from the first seven waves of the BHPS (1991–97), they defined an occurrence of a ‘life event’ as a change between different states such as ‘single’ to ‘married’, ‘employed’ to ‘unemployed’ and ‘health excellent’ to ‘health good’. They then estimated ordered probit regression equations, with measures of subjective well-being as their dependent variables and ‘life event’ (state change) dummy variables as well as monthly income as their independent variables and they used these equations to estimate the ‘compensating amounts’ for various changes of states. For instance, they estimated that a change between a state of having ‘Excellent Health’ to having ‘Good Health’ was equivalent to losing, on average, £12 000 a month in income.

This article builds on the work of Clark and Oswald20 and complements the work of Oswald and Powdthavee22 by investigating further the potential of the BHPS to measure the impact of life events on happiness. However, we do not attempt to attach monetary values to life states. Instead, this article focuses on BHPS variables that explicitly pertain to ‘life events’ for a similar time period to that examined by Clark and Oswald. In particular, the so called ‘Major Life Event’ BHPS data (see appendix of this article and Taylor et al.21 for a detailed description of all event categories) were utilized in order to investigate the degree to which these events affect subjective well-being by using simple cross-tabulations of ‘Major Life Events’ and ‘Subjective Happiness’. A multiple regression equation was also fitted on the ‘Major Life Event’ data in order to measure the relative importance of different events in relation to subjective happiness.

Data and method: examining happiness and major life events in the BHPS

Between September 1992 and December 1995, members of the BHPS were asked to: ‘state in your own words what in the last year has happened to you (or your family) which stood out as important’. Up to four events were recorded on up to four occasions in four consecutive years (1992, 1993, 1994 and 1995). [This question was discontinued in 1996 but was then asked again in 1999, 2001 and 2004. In the context of this article, we focused on the years when the question was asked consecutively (1992–95), which also represent a relatively similar period to that examined by Clark and Oswald (1991–97).] These were coded as 80 types of event that were placed by us into the following categories:

  • Health related events

  • Education

  • Employment

  • Leisure

  • Births and Deaths

  • Relationships

  • Finance and Other

In addition, each of these events related to 21 possible subjects (see Appendix). For instance, one of the events was coded as: ‘my mother’ (subject 8) ‘passed her driving test’ (event 32).

In the context of this article, different combinations of ‘major life events’ and ‘event subjects’ have been explored in order to define a smaller number of more ‘statistically manageable’ events. It should be noted that in practise, of the 1680 possible events only 34 combinations accounted each for more than 1% of all recorded events and so an aggregation of major life events to these 34 combinations is used here. Table 1 lists these 34 combinations of ‘major life events’ and ‘subjects’.

Table 1

‘Major life event’ and ‘subject’ combinations; BHPS waves 1992–95 (pooled)

Description of event combination Frequency Frequency (%) 
Nothing important happened 94 911 66.12 
Health related events
Health 1–9a (otherb991 0.69 
Health 1–9 (mine) 2678 1.86 
Health 1–9 (partner) 755 0.52 
Health 1–9 (child) 620 0.43 
Health 1–9 (parent) 648 0.45 
Subtotal 5692 3.96 
Education
Education (other) 903 0.63 
Education (mine) 2185 1.52 
Education (child) 1828 1.27 
Subtotal 4916 3.42 
Employment
Employment (other) 1808 1.26 
Employment (job change) 2615 1.82 
Employment (job gain) 1143 0.79 
Employment (job loss) 1370 0.95 
Subtotal 6936 4.82 
Leisure
Leisure (other) 1824 1.27 
Leisure (our holiday) 1223 0.85 
Leisure (my holiday) 3635 2.53 
Subtotal 6682 4.64 
Births and deaths
Pregnancy/birth (other) 97 0.07 
Pregnancy/birth (mine) 1284 0.89 
Pregnancy/birth (child's) 1309 0.91 
Pregnancy/birth (family) 1264 0.88 
Death (other) 384 0.27 
Death (parent) 708 0.49 
Death (family)c1674 1.16 
Subtotal 6720 4.67 
Relationships
Relationships (family 35, 41–42) 988 0.69 
Relationships (mine starting 35, 42) 1597 1.11 
Relationships (child's starting 35, 42) 830 0.58 
Relationships (mine ending 36, 43) 637 0.44 
Relationships family (46–53, 55–59) 3728 2.59 
Relationships (pet ownership/ companionship 54) 560 0.39 
Subtotal 8661 6.02 
Finance and other
Finance (other 60–69, 73–79) 2563 1.78 
Finance (car 70) 973 0.68 
Finance (house 71) 772 0.54 
Moving home (44, 80–81) 2810 1.95 
Other event (10–11, 32–34, 37–39, 90–95) 2224 1.55 
Subtotal 9342 6.49 
Total number of recorded events*143 860 
Description of event combination Frequency Frequency (%) 
Nothing important happened 94 911 66.12 
Health related events
Health 1–9a (otherb991 0.69 
Health 1–9 (mine) 2678 1.86 
Health 1–9 (partner) 755 0.52 
Health 1–9 (child) 620 0.43 
Health 1–9 (parent) 648 0.45 
Subtotal 5692 3.96 
Education
Education (other) 903 0.63 
Education (mine) 2185 1.52 
Education (child) 1828 1.27 
Subtotal 4916 3.42 
Employment
Employment (other) 1808 1.26 
Employment (job change) 2615 1.82 
Employment (job gain) 1143 0.79 
Employment (job loss) 1370 0.95 
Subtotal 6936 4.82 
Leisure
Leisure (other) 1824 1.27 
Leisure (our holiday) 1223 0.85 
Leisure (my holiday) 3635 2.53 
Subtotal 6682 4.64 
Births and deaths
Pregnancy/birth (other) 97 0.07 
Pregnancy/birth (mine) 1284 0.89 
Pregnancy/birth (child's) 1309 0.91 
Pregnancy/birth (family) 1264 0.88 
Death (other) 384 0.27 
Death (parent) 708 0.49 
Death (family)c1674 1.16 
Subtotal 6720 4.67 
Relationships
Relationships (family 35, 41–42) 988 0.69 
Relationships (mine starting 35, 42) 1597 1.11 
Relationships (child's starting 35, 42) 830 0.58 
Relationships (mine ending 36, 43) 637 0.44 
Relationships family (46–53, 55–59) 3728 2.59 
Relationships (pet ownership/ companionship 54) 560 0.39 
Subtotal 8661 6.02 
Finance and other
Finance (other 60–69, 73–79) 2563 1.78 
Finance (car 70) 973 0.68 
Finance (house 71) 772 0.54 
Moving home (44, 80–81) 2810 1.95 
Other event (10–11, 32–34, 37–39, 90–95) 2224 1.55 
Subtotal 9342 6.49 
Total number of recorded events*143 860 

View Large

In order to explore the possible relationship between different events and subjective well-being, we used the following ‘ “GHQ: General Happiness’ BHPS question: ‘Have you recently been feeling reasonably happy, all things considered?’ with the responses: ‘More so than usual’, ‘Same as usual’, ‘Less so’ and ‘Much less’. For the purposes of exploring the impact of different variables upon happiness, it was more meaningful to aggregate the third and fourth responses, so we recoded these into one category entitled ‘Less so than usual’. We also reversed the scores, so that higher values indicate ‘higher happiness’. We then used the data from the years in which the event data discussed above were also collected (1992–95) in order to explore the impact of our 34 ‘Major Life Events’ (Table 1) upon subjective happiness. Table 2 gives an indication of what these relationships might be. In particular, it shows how average happiness levels, measured on the 1–3 scale varies across different events.

Table 2

Major life events and happiness; BHPS waves 1992–1995 (pooled)

Subjective General Happiness (%) 
Event Less so than As usual More so than TOTAL 
Nothing important happened 13 74 13 100 
Health (othera 1–9b18 70 12 100 
Health (mine 1–9) 22 68 10 100 
Health (partner 1–9) 17 75 100 
Health (child 1–9) 18 73 100 
Health (parent 1–9) 25 61 14 100 
Education (other 12–19) 11 74 15 100 
Education (mine 12–19) 13 62 25 100 
Education (child 12–19) 15 73 12 100 
Employment (other 23, 26–29) 18 64 18 100 
Employment (job change 20–21) 12 68 20 100 
Employment (job gain 22) 10 67 23 100 
Employment (job loss 24) 24 64 12 100 
Leisure (other 30-31) 10 73 17 100 
Leisure (our holiday 30) 11 76 13 100 
Leisure (my holiday 30) 11 74 15 100 
Pregnancy/birth (other 40) 17 64 19 100 
Pregnancy/birth (mine 40) 12 64 24 100 
Pregnancy/birth (child's 40) 10 78 12 100 
Pregnancy/birth (family 40) 11 71 18 100 
Death (other 45) 23 66 11 100 
Death (parent 45) 26 66 100 
Death (family 45) 20 69 11 100 
Relationships (family 35, 41–42) 12 70 18 100 
Relationships (mine starting 35, 42) 11 56 33 100 
Relationships (child's starting 35, 42) 11 76 13 100 
Relationships (mine ending 36, 43) 32 48 20 100 
Relationships (family, 46–53, 55–59) 14 73 13 100 
Relationships (pet ownership/companionship 54) 17 68 15 100 
Finance (other 60–69, 73–79) 15 70 15 100 
Finance (car 70) 10 72 18 100 
Finance (house 71) 66 25 100 
Moving home (44, 80–81) 14 68 18 100 
Other event (10–11, 32–34, 37–39, 90-95) 16 68 16 100 
Population mean levels 13 73 14 100 
Subjective General Happiness (%) 
Event Less so than As usual More so than TOTAL 
Nothing important happened 13 74 13 100 
Health (othera 1–9b18 70 12 100 
Health (mine 1–9) 22 68 10 100 
Health (partner 1–9) 17 75 100 
Health (child 1–9) 18 73 100 
Health (parent 1–9) 25 61 14 100 
Education (other 12–19) 11 74 15 100 
Education (mine 12–19) 13 62 25 100 
Education (child 12–19) 15 73 12 100 
Employment (other 23, 26–29) 18 64 18 100 
Employment (job change 20–21) 12 68 20 100 
Employment (job gain 22) 10 67 23 100 
Employment (job loss 24) 24 64 12 100 
Leisure (other 30-31) 10 73 17 100 
Leisure (our holiday 30) 11 76 13 100 
Leisure (my holiday 30) 11 74 15 100 
Pregnancy/birth (other 40) 17 64 19 100 
Pregnancy/birth (mine 40) 12 64 24 100 
Pregnancy/birth (child's 40) 10 78 12 100 
Pregnancy/birth (family 40) 11 71 18 100 
Death (other 45) 23 66 11 100 
Death (parent 45) 26 66 100 
Death (family 45) 20 69 11 100 
Relationships (family 35, 41–42) 12 70 18 100 
Relationships (mine starting 35, 42) 11 56 33 100 
Relationships (child's starting 35, 42) 11 76 13 100 
Relationships (mine ending 36, 43) 32 48 20 100 
Relationships (family, 46–53, 55–59) 14 73 13 100 
Relationships (pet ownership/companionship 54) 17 68 15 100 
Finance (other 60–69, 73–79) 15 70 15 100 
Finance (car 70) 10 72 18 100 
Finance (house 71) 66 25 100 
Moving home (44, 80–81) 14 68 18 100 
Other event (10–11, 32–34, 37–39, 90-95) 16 68 16 100 
Population mean levels 13 73 14 100 

View Large

Results

As can be seen in Table 1, according to the data most survey respondents are likely to report that there were no major life events in the previous year: ‘nothing important happened’ makes up 66.12% of all ‘events’. Next most commonly occurring are events that can be labelled: ‘Finance and other’; and then ‘Relationships’ events that make up 6.49 and 6.02% of the total number of recorded events, respectively.

It should be noted that the frequency of the various ‘major life events’ described in Table 1 vary considerably across different age groups. Figure 1 shows this variation by single year of age group for events in each of the eight categories described in that table. There are many notable patterns in Figure 1, for instance, the tendency of younger people to report ‘education’ related events as major, whereas older people tend to report ‘health’ related events. People of an age likely to be parents of school age children also have a higher than average interest in education. Many events that matter to folk are not those that immediately affect them but those that affect people they care about and/or for (or who care for them).

Table 2 shows how subjective happiness levels vary across different events and which events are characterized by higher than average levels of ‘happiness’ or ‘unhappiness’. For instance, 32% of the observations that recorded ‘relationship mine ending’ as a major life event also record subjective happiness, which is ‘less so than usual’ (relationships ending are generally a source of unhappiness but for a smaller but quantifiable group the end of the relationship is reason for celebration). The respective figure for average unhappiness of those that recorded ‘death of a parent’ as a major life event is 25% (perhaps most of these deaths occurred at a time that was more predictable than are the demise of most partnerships). On the other hand, 33% of the people that recorded the start of a personal relationship as a major life event also record ‘more than usual’ levels of subjective happiness (in this case, its interesting how many are sanguine). In addition, 25% of the folk that record ‘education, mine’ as a major life event report ‘more than usual’ levels of happiness. It is also interesting to note that ‘pregnancy/birth, other’ is associated with relatively high rates of both ‘happiness’ (19% of ‘more than usual’) and ‘unhappiness’ (17% of ‘less than usual’, possibly expressing unwanted pregnancies or post-natal depression, and often of people's grown up children being pregnant, perhaps cementing a relationship with an off-spring's partner that the parents had hoped would end).

In order to evaluate the effect of the events described in Tables 1 and 2 upon happiness, we employed the statistical tool of ordinary least squares (OLS) multivariate regression, building on the work of Clark and Oswald briefly reviewed in the previous section. It should be noted though that, unlike Clark and Oswald, we fitted an OLS model (instead of ordered probits) on data pertaining to changes of state—events—that respondents themselves declare as important (instead of differences in state) and we did not attempt to assign a monetary value upon different events (and hence we did not include an income variable in the analysis). Table 3 summarizes the results of the OLS regression analysis (listing the life event regression coefficients in ascending order). High negative values imply an association of the event with ‘unhappiness’, whereas high positive values indicate that an event has an association with ‘happiness’. As can be seen in Table 3, the event ‘the end of my relationship’ has the highest negative coefficient and therefore according to the BHPS data and the method used here, it has the highest positive association with ‘unhappiness’. This is followed by ‘death of a parent’ and the effect upon the individual of health events pertaining to the parents of the respondents. A ‘death of some other person’ (not family member) also has a high negative coefficient and so does an employment-related loss (e.g. being made redundant or experiencing a pay cut). Note that, as stated earlier, we only considered events that when aggregated, accounted for more than 1% of all recorded events. By using this aggregation, major events such as ‘death of a child’—which accounted for <1% of all events—were subsumed in the ‘death in family’ overall category.

Table 3

OLS regression equation of subjective happiness and major life events. (Adjusted for gender, age, age squared and education) BHPS waves 1992–95 (pooled and weighted on the basis of the 1995 cross-sectional weights; note that the value of the constant is 2.25)

Life Event Coefficient P-valueaFrequency (%) × Regression coefficient Original regression rank Prevalence-based regression rank 
Relationships (mineb ending 36, 43c−0.178 0.00 −0.08 
Death (parent, 45) −0.166 0.00 −0.08 
Healthd parent (1–9) −0.139 0.00 −0.06 
Death (other 45) −0.137 0.00 −0.04 11 
Employment job loss 24 −0.129 0.00 −0.12 
Health mine (1–9) −0.117 0.00 −0.22 
Death (family 45) −0.098 0.00 −0.11 
Health partner (1–9) −0.092 0.00 −0.05 
Health child (1–9) −0.084 0.00 −0.04 13 
Health other (1–9) −0.073 0.00 −0.05 10 
Education child (12–19) −0.029 0.12 −0.04 11 12 
Employment other (23, 26–29) −0.028 0.13 −0.04 12 15 
Other event (10–11, 32–34, 37–39, 90–95) −0.026 0.14 −0.04 13 10 
Nothing important happened −0.022 0.11 −1.47 14 
Relationships (pet ownership/companionship 54) −0.020 0.44 −0.01 15 17 
Finance (other 60–69, 73–79) −0.019 0.27 −0.03 16 16 
Relationships family (46–53, 55–59) −0.014 0.39 −0.04 17 14 
Relationships (family 35, 41–42) 0.002 0.91 0.00 18 18 
Leisure (our holiday 30) 0.010 0.61 0.01 19 20 
Moving home (44, 80–81) 0.013 0.46 0.02 20 24 
Education other (12–19) 0.024 0.27 0.02 21 21 
Finance (car 70) 0.027 0.22 0.02 22 22 
Leisure (my holiday 30) 0.029 0.07 0.07 23 30 
Pregnancy/birth (other 40) 0.031 0.56 0.00 24 19 
Pregnancy/birth (family 40) 0.034 0.09 0.03 25 25 
Relationships (child's starting 35, 42) 0.037 0.10 0.02 26 23 
Employment job change (20–21) 0.040 0.02 0.07 27 29 
Leisure (other 30–31) 0.043 0.02 0.05 28 28 
Education mine(12–19) 0.052 0.00 0.08 29 33 
Pregnancy/birth (child's 40) 0.053 0.01 0.05 30 26 
Pregnancy/birth (mine 40) 0.084 0.00 0.08 31 31 
Finance (house 71) 0.097 0.00 0.05 32 27 
Employment job gain 22 0.097 0.00 0.08 33 32 
Relationships (mine starting 35, 42) 0.160 0.00 0.18 34 34 
Life Event Coefficient P-valueaFrequency (%) × Regression coefficient Original regression rank Prevalence-based regression rank 
Relationships (mineb ending 36, 43c−0.178 0.00 −0.08 
Death (parent, 45) −0.166 0.00 −0.08 
Healthd parent (1–9) −0.139 0.00 −0.06 
Death (other 45) −0.137 0.00 −0.04 11 
Employment job loss 24 −0.129 0.00 −0.12 
Health mine (1–9) −0.117 0.00 −0.22 
Death (family 45) −0.098 0.00 −0.11 
Health partner (1–9) −0.092 0.00 −0.05 
Health child (1–9) −0.084 0.00 −0.04 13 
Health other (1–9) −0.073 0.00 −0.05 10 
Education child (12–19) −0.029 0.12 −0.04 11 12 
Employment other (23, 26–29) −0.028 0.13 −0.04 12 15 
Other event (10–11, 32–34, 37–39, 90–95) −0.026 0.14 −0.04 13 10 
Nothing important happened −0.022 0.11 −1.47 14 
Relationships (pet ownership/companionship 54) −0.020 0.44 −0.01 15 17 
Finance (other 60–69, 73–79) −0.019 0.27 −0.03 16 16 
Relationships family (46–53, 55–59) −0.014 0.39 −0.04 17 14 
Relationships (family 35, 41–42) 0.002 0.91 0.00 18 18 
Leisure (our holiday 30) 0.010 0.61 0.01 19 20 
Moving home (44, 80–81) 0.013 0.46 0.02 20 24 
Education other (12–19) 0.024 0.27 0.02 21 21 
Finance (car 70) 0.027 0.22 0.02 22 22 
Leisure (my holiday 30) 0.029 0.07 0.07 23 30 
Pregnancy/birth (other 40) 0.031 0.56 0.00 24 19 
Pregnancy/birth (family 40) 0.034 0.09 0.03 25 25 
Relationships (child's starting 35, 42) 0.037 0.10 0.02 26 

Similar Documents

A Major Event in My Life

...A Major Event in my life “Thank you for taking Eva airline. This flight from Taiwan to Vancouver is landing now. Please remain seated…” a flight attendant announced. The announcement woke me up from a long sweet dream. Twelve hours earlier, I was standing in the Taiwan international airport, saying goodbye to all relatives and friends. I was standing at a foreign airport now. My whole new life to become a Canadian started in this unfamiliar city, Vancouver. My hometown, Taiwan, is a small, but crowded and beautiful island. It is very hot in everyday, and it is nearly forty degrees in the summer. We keep air-conditioners on every day. There are many interesting places to visit in Taiwan. Night market is one of the places that you must visit. Also, there are various delicious Taiwanese foods, such as bubble teas, stinky tofu…etc. I have many friends and relatives in Taiwan, so it is hard for me to leave everyone I love. This is the life I used to for fifteen years. The best city in the world for people to live in is Vancouver. It is a new, unfamiliar and quiet city is the first impression I have for Vancouver. The weather is cold for me who comes from a tropical country. Everything is different. English is the first thing I am not familiar with. New house, school and environment make me not comfortable. I believe I am not going to be used to this slow paste, boring and cold city. After three years in Vancouver, I went back to Taiwan to visit. I went to visit...

Words: 386 - Pages: 2

Life Changing Event

...Life Changing Event Jonathan McCullough English Composition 1 Tina Miller February 3rd 2014 Life before my daughter’s birth was excellent, or so I thought. I was entirely wrapped up in my desires and myself. I was the definition of selfish, but somehow my wonderful wife put up with me through those years. The worst part of it was I didn’t even realize it. The funny thing about having children is that they give you a deep understanding of selflessness. Even when we found out that my wife was pregnant, I still carried on pretty much the same way I always had. I had no idea that my world was going to come crashing down around me. Through all of the dust and rubble of the remainder of what I thought was my great life, a brilliant light began to shine through. The light was the love that I felt for my daughter, once you have experienced that depth of love, your life will never be the same. The birth of my daughter was one of the most positively impactful events of my life. The day she was born will be etched into my memory forever. After a scheduled doctor visit we were sent straight to the hospital to begin the journey. I remember the excitement that was almost tangible as we drove to the hospital. After checking in they put us in a small examination room on the labor and delivery floor. We were to spend a long and uncomfortable night. My wife was uncomfortable for obvious reasons, me on the other hand, I had pushed to hospital chairs together to form a makeshift bed......

Words: 881 - Pages: 4

Predictable Life Events

...Describe how major life events can influence the development of the individual. There are many life changes which influence on peoples life individually. Each individual changes will experience differently. Changes like, starting school, leaving home or losing job may affect our health and well being. Some of the events have positive influence on us but some of them may be stressful and depressed for some people. Some people might be able to able to cope with these changes very ease. Sometimes is depending of person, on individual experience and manage with many problems. Life event results have an individual self concept. Some of life events might change an individual understanding of themselves and the behaviours may get changes. Starting school might be a positive experience for some children, but also might be negative and not nice. It all depends of child and their parents, and how they cope with the change. Starting school Starting school can be the first major of event. Sometimes people will remember the first day in school with some reasons. Children usually are nervous and very exciting that day. They want to now how the school look like, how is in school, how the children are, and who the teacher looks. For some children is might be the first day without family, mother and father. Children might be upset and they might cry because they miss them. In the first day children do not know what to expect from all this new things and people who they meet. They......

Words: 2071 - Pages: 9

Significant Life Events

...Supporting significant life events Introduction The social change such as passing away of a loved one makes a lot of impact on the behavior and the individuals, especially when they are aged or disabled. The case study points out to an elderly lady, who is mentally disadvantaged and the impact of the passing away of her spouse of 40 years. In this short reflection, we are going to assess the Physical, Psychological and Social Impact of Bereavement on Individuals, look at the different group responses to the bereavement of individuals and the impact and implication of the people in health and social care when an individual is bereaved. 1.1 Explain the impact of significant life events on individuals. Bereavement is the condition of having being deprived of something or someone valued, especially through death. The individual feels yearning, pining and longing for the one who has died. The bereaved feels empty inside. It can greatly impact the way in which a person deals with events in later stages of life. We also call it grief. One of the biggest reasons of grief in humans is the loss of loved ones. The grief can have multifaceted effects on physical, psychological and social behavior of the people. When grief overpowers an individual, he can be adversely affected in various ways. If an individual hears the news of loss of loved ones, this shock causes the adrenal system to release adrenaline steroids in body causing a variety of physical reactions. It can......

Words: 3059 - Pages: 13

Unit 4 Predictable and Unpredictable Life Stages

...Predictable 1. Starting school or nursery Which Lifestage? Positive: This is a big life stage for young children as it enables them to have distance from their parents, and become slightly more independent. It enables them to socialise with other children and learn new things, it also gets them into a routine. Negative: It can be very daunting for the child and the parents, it can also be very traumatising especially if the child has attachment issues. P Physically they will learn to cope on their own, they will learn how to do simple things like take off their coat and put it back on again. They will also begin to learn about writing, and how to write or draw. I Intellectually the child will be challenging their brain, as they will be learning about new things all the time, such as using new materials they have never seen, or writing and drawing. E Emotionally they may feel overwhelmed. They may feel very distressed when they first start going to nursery because it is perhaps being away from somebody familiar for the longest period of time they have experienced. S Socially, they will be meeting new children their age and having to socialise with them on a regular basis. They will learn about different people. Parents will also have a chance to mix with other parents with children of similar ages. Predictable 2. Which......

Words: 528 - Pages: 3

Events of My Life

...The two events I chose is the day that I had graduated from high school. The reason why I chose this event is because I had went through a lot in and out of school. I have seen a lot going on with my parents marriage and had to help raise my two little sisters. I also had to focus on my school work which was hard due to I always getting into trouble because of my anger. I was taking into school. The second event I chose is when I started my job at the school I am working at now. I worked so hard through out the years going through jobs just to find a career that was right for me and after working with children and being able to work at the same school as my daughter was perfect. for the event I graduated from high school. I had problems in my childhood to my late teens but with the help of doctors,family members,teachers,and some of my friends I was able to get through my tough times and move on. When I got to be in my twenties I had a better control of my life. I was more independent. With the influence I had a lot to do what was going on with my daughters father and I because I have to act like everything is ok between us for the sake of our daughter. Her father and I are working on our relationship to stay as a family. Some of the co-workers at my job has some influence on me because they help guide me in the right direction to where I want to be to get my education to become a teacher. also due to our school did not have after school programs and a day care service......

Words: 506 - Pages: 3

Life and Events

...Early Childhood Life and Events Clayton Newsome Dr. Pamela Todd Counseling 502 October 03, 2014 Abstract Introduction Human growth and development starts as soon as conception takes place. As soon as a child enters into the world, they connect with their mother and a bond is formed. This bond is important because a mother and the child’s family life can influence them throughout their life. In this comprehensive paper, I will give some in site on my life as well as discuss several topics which I feel has had a negative and positive impact on my growth and development as a child and an adult. Early Development As much as I can remember, by mother was a hard working woman who always worked two jobs and my father had his own business hauling trash. My mother was a strong tempered, outgoing person. She was the type of woman who held her family together. She taught my siblings and me how to strive for the best in life. My mother told me when she was carrying me; I would kick and do all kinds of flips in her stomach. I was always on the move. Some people might say personality does not start in the womb. I believe otherwise. Personality development is the development involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the life span (Feldman, 2014). I am the second from the youngest child. I have a sister that is younger than I. As I stated, my mother worked two jobs. Since, she worked so much, she want not......

Words: 765 - Pages: 4

My Significant Life Event

...My Significant Life Event Oneekah Henderson Mr. Clinton Gortney Lithonia Campus Introduction to Psychology October 28, 2014 Strayer University My Significant Life Event My life has been filled with lots of memories, not many from my childhood, some good some bad. I feel that these compilations of events have molded me into who I am and how I react to different situations. According to Settersten and Mayer (1997) (via psyplexus.com/mhr/life_events_psychiatry.html) “A life event is a significant occurrence involving a relatively abrupt change that may produce serious and long lasting effects.” For me that event was the day a man invaded my home and shot/paralyzed my husband in front of my 2yr pol son, while I was in the adjacent room. My Biological Perspective As I was in the living room I heard people talking in the kitchen, which wasn’t a surprise, I was watching a movie after getting the older children off to school. The sound of calm voices turned into tussling followed by a loud bang and my son screaming. As I jumped up, my son ran into the room and jumped into my arms crying. I immediately ran and jumped behind the sofa, pulling it back on us to hide. My hands were shaking as I tried to dial for help, only to get put on hold and sent to voicemail. As the man entered the room looking for my son, not knowing I was in the house as well, I began to shake profusely. I put my hand over his mouth whispering to be quiet, and he did. Unable to answer to 911......

Words: 773 - Pages: 4

Life Challenging Event

...LIFE CHALLENGING EVENT PAGE 1 Life Challenging Event Maureen Dela Cruz ENG/220 November 20, 2014 Professor Joseph Trimarche Life Challenging Event At one point in our lives, we encounter an event that changes us to be better or to be bad. Challenges that may or may not mold us to be better. This is what we call our turning point. My childhood years probably is not a typical experience or normal experience for most people. I grew up witnessing my dad ruin his life. He followed the wrong path. His responsibility of being a father to three children was forgotten. It was buried in the dark. There was not anyone or anybody I could turn to but myself. My mom was miles and miles away from me. Ocean was our distance. At age 15, I was pretty much on my own. I had to support myself financially. I had to work to be able to attend high school. It was during high school years when I felt I had hit rock bottom. I had to grow up fast. I had to become mature quickly than others. Yes, they call it public school, but public school does not mean everything comes free. I still needed money for my daily expense and projects. I can vividly remember what my father told me one evening. He tried to stop me from attending high school. According to him, going to school is a waste of time. I remember how he told me to just work and give him my paycheck to help the family. He did not believe I could make it. My heart sank upon hearing those words. I could......

Words: 502 - Pages: 3

Life Factors and Life Events in Health and Social Care P2

...LIFE FACTORS AND LIFE EVENTS PASS 2 For this assignment I will be explaining the potential effects of five different life factors on the development of an individual. I will also be looking at unpredictable and predictable life events and how they could have an effect on the development of that person. Potential life factors, unpredictable and predictable life events could include: Employment Income Housing Environment Education Culture Gender Relationships Marriage Parenthood Birth of a child Starting work Retirement Divorce Serious illness or injury Redundancy and unemployment Bereavement Abuse HOUSING Having good housing will have a positive affect on growth and development. Your home is a place where you should feel safe a secure so by having good housing conditions and if you live in a nice peaceful area this will make you feel safe and allow you to decorate and stamp your own personality on your home. You will want people to come around to your house because you will have a sense of pride about home which will enable you to keep in contact with your friends and family. Where you live is also important, for younger people living in a urban area will give them access to more social activities and facilities which is important for their own self-esteem and growth and will allow them to make more friends and feel wanted by society. Rural life is often quieter which will suit families with......

Words: 2691 - Pages: 11

P3 Explain the Influences of Two Predictable and Two Unpredictable Major Life Events on the Development of an Individual

...P3 | Explain the influences of two predictable and two unpredictable majorlife events on the development of an individual | A predictable event is something which has a high likelihood of occurring and is expected. And an unpredictable event is something which is not expected. Unpredictable events tend to have more of an impact on an individual’s life, because they would not be expecting it and would not be prepared for it, for example the sudden death of a family member. Marriage is a predictable life event, majority of people get married in their life time or at least plan to. The point of marriage is that it brings two people together, who plan to be together for the rest of their lives. It brings about many changes to a person’s life, including emotional and social development. Angelina Jolie has been married three times. She is now currently married to Brad Pitt who she loves very much and so this would affect her emotionally as she now has a life partner, someone to care for her and to share her problems with this. The effect of this is that it will allow her to be more content and happy in life as she has someone who loves her so much. Also she has new family and friends to get to know and begin new relationships with such as friends and family of Brad Pitts, so this would affect her social development, allowing her to be more confident. Angelina’s intellectual development would be affected as she would begin to think more about their future together and......

Words: 1029 - Pages: 5

P3: Unpredictable and Predictable Life Events

...P3: Explain the influences of two predictable and unpredictable major life events on the development of an individual. Differences in effect of predictable and unpredictable events There are certain life events that can change the way an individual’s personal development. Some crucial events in a person’s life can be predicted and sometimes even chosen, while there are other events that are unpredicted. Predictable life events such as ageing, starting to school or going through puberty, retiring from work, leaving home etc. often marks a transition from one life stage to another and considered as a milestone in the individual’s personal development. There are life events that are unpredictable such as sudden illness, birth of a sibling, death of friend or family member redundancy, which normally has negative effects on the emotional development of an individual but could also lead to something positive. Predictable events: A major event in Serena’s life would be starting school would be a predictable event in her life because it would help to influence her physical development, through promoting healthy eating in the school’s dining hall and participating in P.E lessons or doing activities that are sports and fitness related so that she can maintain her healthy body stature. In addition to the school meals if she came from a low income family the school would help to provide healthy meals so that she can get the nutrition she needs. Starting school would also develop...

Words: 888 - Pages: 4

Predictable and Unpredictable Life Events

...Influences of Predictable and Unpredictable Life Events: Life events can change the direction of life affecting personal development. Major changes in life can either be predicted or even chosen, whilst others may be unpredicted and unwanted. Predictable life events such as starting school, puberty and retirement often mark a transition from one life stage to another, acting as milestones in our personal development. However, unpredictable life events such as sudden illness, redundancy, or divorce occur unexpectedly and are more often associated with loss, but also may lead to positive changes in life. Sudden changes in life is related to the risk of an individual to feel out of control and therefore stressed. If an individual chooses to leave home, marry or retire, they are in control of these major life events. The idea of predictable and unpredictable life events involves generalisation. For some individuals, issues such as divorce or redundancy may be predictable, but other people may not have of expected to neither be divorced nor lose their job. Predictable: Starting School Starting school is a government requirement and therefore is a predictable life event; however it can have an influence on an individual’s development. Physical development is associated with starting school as individuals start to participate in the subject of physical education (PE), which gives children the opportunity to boost their physical development, and allows them to run around and......

Words: 1587 - Pages: 7

A Life Changing Event

...Yunjie Zang ID:5346525 ENGL 101-93 A life changing event I've experienced a lot of events which had great impact on me since I was young, but speaking of a life changing event, the first thing that I came up with is my educational experience when I was in senior 2 in high school. First , let me tell you the education that I had back in my country.I had my primary school and high school education in the same school back in China, it is an International school , which means I had the chance to learn English , to be exposed to different culture and knowledge since i was young. This is very different from the general Chinese education system, which I will introduce it later on. I started learning English since Grade 1 in primary school, and had the opportunity to meet with different foreign teachers all over the world. Before letting you know how this life changing event affected me so significantly, i need to let you know how the educational system works in China. In China, students must complete a 6-year primary school and a 6-year high school in order to apply for universities. However, there will be a extremely crucial test- the college entry test, which can almost determine the path of your life. In a word, if you do a real good job on this test, it basically means you will have the chance to enter one of the best universities in China, and your future will be bright; But, if you don't get a nice grade, it means you have to work out your own way for your future,......

Words: 900 - Pages: 4

Predictable and Unpredictable Life Events

...The events that we experience in our lives influence how we develop and change in each stage of our lives. Life pushes us through changes at particular point. These periods of change are all transition points which can be little unsettling. They are usually counterbalanced by periods of clam and stability. These changes may make us feel awkward or even be painful but they are necessary because life does not stand still. A life event can change the direction of our lives, affecting our personal development. Some major changes in life can be predicted and even chosen, while others may be unpredicted. Predictable life events, such as starting school, going through puberty and retiring from work, often mark a transition from one stage of life to another, acting as milestones in our personal development. Unpredictable life events, such as sudden illness or injury, redundancy or the death of a friend or relative, occur unexpectedly and are often associated with loss, but may also lead to positive change in our lives. Predictable life events tend to happen at particular points of our lives and these events are expected. We can already consider some of the physical changes that occur or we undergo through the lifespan like if are already an adult puberty is an example and a child would expect as well to undergo this process where lots of physical changes will happen and there will be emotional changes like higher level of sense of self-esteem and peer pressure but some might or...

Words: 1667 - Pages: 7

Categories: 1

0 Replies to “Predictable And Unpredictable Life Events Essay Topics”

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *