Environmental Deterioration In Mumbai Essays On Success

"New Bombay" redirects here. For other uses, see Bombay (disambiguation).

Navi Mumbai (IPA:Navī Mumba'ī) is a planned township of Mumbai off the west coast of the Indian state of Maharashtra in Konkan division. The city is divided into two parts, North Navi Mumbai and South Navi Mumbai, for the individual development of Panvel Mega City, which includes the area from Kharghar to Uran. Navi Mumbai has a population of 1,119,477[1] as per the 2011 provisional census.

The area was mooted in 1971 to be a new urban township of Mumbai by the Government of Maharashtra. For this purpose a new public sector undertaking was established that is the CIDCO. [2] Navi Mumbai is situated across two districts namely Mumbai and Raigad.[3] The city has been ranked 12th among 73 cities surveyed for cleanliness and hygiene by the Union Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) and Quality Council of India (QCI) as a part of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.[4]

Navi Mumbai is home to various educational institutions offering courses in several streams including engineering, medical sciences, interior designing, and hotel management. Various MNCs like Siemens, McDonald's, Bureau Veritas, Bizerba and Larsen & Toubro have their offices/branches across the city making it an active business hub.[5] Navi Mumbai also has various recreational facilities such as a golf course, central park and Pandavkada water falls in Kharghar, Parsik Hill near Mahape, Wonders park in Nerul, mini seashore or Sagar Vihar in Vashi, Pirwad and Mankeshwar Beach in Uran and several other public places like gardens and jogging tracks. Navi Mumbai also has many quality restaurants and luxury hotels for accommodation like Four Poins by Sheraton and Fortune Exotica. There are many shopping malls such as Seawoods Grand Central in Seawoods, Little World mall in Kharghar, Orion Mall in Panvel, Inorbit and Raghuleela malls in Vashi.

History[edit]

A phenomenal rate of urban growth has been experienced by India during the 25 years following independence and Bombay has had its due share in it. The population of Greater Bombay rose from 2.966 millions in 1951 to 4.152 millions in 1961 and to 5.970 millions in 1971, registering 40.0 and 43.80 per cent growths during the first and second decades respectively. The rapid rate of growth of population, made possible by the increasing industrial and commercial importance of the city, resulted in a fast deterioration in the quality of life for the majority of people living in the city. Development inputs could not keep pace with the rapidly growing population, industry, trade and commerce. Besides, there are physical limitations to the growth of a city built on a long and narrow peninsula, which has very few connections with the mainland.

The Government of Maharashtra has been alive to the emerging problems of this metropolis. Responsible public opinion was equally vigilant and several constructive suggestions appeared from time to time in the press and elsewhere. All this helped in keeping the problems of Bombay in the forefront of public awareness. In 1958, the Govt. of Bombay appointed a study group under the Chairmanship of Shri S.G. Barve, Secretary to Government, Public Works Department, to consider the problems relating to congestion of traffic, deficiency of open spaces and play fields, shortage of housing and over concentration of industry in the metropolitan and suburban areas of Bombay, and to recommend specific measures to deal with these.

The Barve Group reported in February 1959. One of its major recommendations was that a rail-cum-road bridge be built across the Thane Creek to connect peninsular Bombay with the mainland. The group felt that the bridge would accelerate development across the Creek, relieve pressure on the city’s railways and roadways, and draw away industrial and residential concentrations eastward to the mainland. The Group hoped that the eastward development would be orderly and would take place in a planned manner.

The Government of Maharashtra accepted the Barve Group recommendation. Another Committee under the Chairmanship of Prof. D.R. Gadgil, then Director of the Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Poona was formed and asked “to formulate broad principles of regional planning for the metropolitan regions of Bombay Panvel and Poona and to make recommendations for the establishment of Metropolitan Authorities for preparation and execution of such plans”.

The Gadgil Committee inter-alia made two important recommendations which have influenced the planning for Navi Mumbai. One, a planned decentralisation of industries with severe restrictions on further industrial growth in the Bombay region. Two, development of the mainland area as a multi-nucleated settlement, each settlement smaller in size than 2.5 lacs population. These multi-nucleated settlements are called nodes in the plan, where the entire development is proposed as a series of nodes strung out along mass transit area. The nodes proposed by us are, however, more closely spaced than the multi-nucleated settlements envisaged by Dr. Gadgil. But the principle remains of individual settlements, self-contained in respect of schools and shopping and other essential services and separated from each other by green spaces.

The Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act was passed in 1966 and brought into force in January 1967. The Bombay Metropolitan Region was notified in June 1967 and a Regional Planning Board constituted under the Chairmanship of Shri L.G. Rajwade, I.C.S. The Draft Regional Plan of the Board was finalised in January 1970. It proposed the development of a twin city across the harbour, on the mainland to the east, as a counter-magnet to the office concentration taking place at the southern tip of Bombay. The alternative growth pole was to siphon off the over concentration of jobs and population which further growth would cause in the city and reallocate these on the mainland. In making this recommendation, the Board was influenced by various factors such as the existing industrial sites in the Thana-Belapur area and Taloja, the imminent completion of the Thana Creek Bridge and the proposal of the Bombay Port Trust to establish a new port at Nhava Sheva.

The Board recommended that the new metro-centre or Navi Mumbai as it is now called, be developed to accommodate a population of 21 lacs.[6]

Implementation, development and issues[edit]

The planning of Navi Mumbai could begin, in the right earnest, only by 1971, and involved leading architects and urban planner like, Charles Correa (Chief Architect), Shirish Patel, Pravina Mehta[7] and R. K. Jha (Chief Planner),[8] The City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) was established on 17 March 1971, under the Indian Companies Act, 1956 for this purpose. The area covered 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the total 720 kilometres (450 mi) of the Konkan coast. Privately owned land consisting of 86 villages covering 15,954 hectares (39,420 acres) within the present limits of Navi Mumbai and further villages measuring an additional 2,870 hectares (7,100 acres) were acquired by the government of Maharashtra.[9] The major part of Navi Mumbai covers the southern part of Thane Taluka (from Thane District) and part of Panvel and Uran taluka (from Raigad District).

CIDCO carved out 14 small nodes with a view towards facilitating comprehensive development. These nodes are named Airoli, Ghansoli, Kopar Khairane, Vashi, Sanpada, Nerul, CBD Belapur, Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel, Kalamboli, Ulwe, Dronagiri, Taloja, Karanjade.

CIDCO planned and constructed all the railway stations, roads and public spaces in Navi Mumbai and developed nearby areas commercially.

In 1973, the Vashi bridge was opened to the public for residents of Vashi, CBD Belapur and Nerul. The Sion-Panvel Highway was built to reduce the time taken to travel from Sion to Panvel. Initially there was not much response to the new city. Major changes took place only after 1990, with the commissioning of a wholesale agricultural produce market at Vashi and the construction of a commuter railway line from Mankhurd to Vashi in May 1992. These developments caused a sudden growth in economic activities and population in Navi Mumbai.

The city has some issues too. The city was originally planned to create affordable housing for people who could not afford living in Mumbai. It was decided not to let any slum pockets pop up across the city. But it failed. According to the 2001 census, a fifth[10][11] to a third[12] of the population of municipalised Navi Mumbai lives in slums [13] and gaothans (urban villages)[9] with thousands of buildings built violating planning norms.[14]

By the end of the 1990s, the planning authority of Navi Mumbai initiated private participation in the developmental activity of Navi Mumbai. A new railway link between Nerul and Uran is under construction and the portion of this line from Seawood to Ulwe is at an advanced stage of construction.[15] Southern Navi Mumbai is being developed rapidly with its class infrastructure and modern nodes of Kharghar, Kamothe, Panvel and Kalamboli. These nodes are experiencing major infrastructural developments due to their proximity to the proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport. Also a latest development known as 'One Time Planning' with an estimated budget of ₹12,821 crores is underway to transform the municipalised Navi Mumbai on the lines of the Mega Cities of the world.

Administration[edit]

CIDCO[edit]

When Navi Mumbai was created in the 1970s, CIDCO was the only authority that looked after the development and maintenance of the city. CIDCO prepared a developmental plan for Navi Mumbai covering 95 villages

For the first Ten years of the project CIDCO acted as the planning and administrative body, and as the developer and builder for the project. Taxes on property, land, commercial and water were payable to CIDCO. The 14 nodes which CIDCO created were named Airoli, Ghansoli, Kopar Khairane, Vashi, Sanpada, Nerul, CBD Belapur, Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel, Kalamboli, Ulwe, Pushpak and Dronagiri. Each of the nodes is divided into smaller groups called sectors.

Initially only Vashi, Nerul and CBD Belapur were developed by CIDCO with housing, schools and community centre roads. But after the arrival of the harbour railway line extension in the 1990s, there was an increase in population. CIDCO shifted its development plan to nodes like Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel, and Kopar Khairane. In its new development plan, CIDCO land was allocated to builders for housing. CIDCO only provided basic infrastructure like roads, water and electricity, these nodes were developed mostly by private builders according to the CIDCO plan.

The newly developed nodes of Navi Mumbai on the south side like Kharghar, Kamothe, New Panvel and Kalamboli are maintained by CIDCO. These nodes, which are all beyond CBD Belapur, come under the Raigad district.

NMMC[edit]

On 17 December 1991, Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) was constituted by the state government for maintaining some of the developed nodes of Navi Mumbai.

Local self-government started on 1 January 1992. NMMC was handed nine of the 14 nodes of the Navi Mumbai project area for its jurisdiction. However, CIDCO, as a planning authority, has rights on the open plots in these five nodes.

The nine nodes maintained by NMMC are CBD Belapur, Nerul, Vashi, Turbhe, Kopar khairane, Ghansoli, Airoli, Digha, and Sanpada as of 1 January 1998, with the physical and social infrastructure already in place.

With annual budget exceeding Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation, it is rated amongst the richest corporations in Maharashtra.

The municipal corporation is headed by a municipal commissioner and an elected mayor. Currently, the Mayor of Navi Mumbai is Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) member Mr. J.D.Sutar. There are 111 electoral wards in Navi Mumbai.[16] A corporator is elected in each of the wards.

PMC[edit]

Recently a resolution has been passed by the general body of the Panvel Municipal Council (PMC), which currently administers the city of Old Panvel spread across an area of 12.11 sq. km. with a population of 1.8 lakh (0.18 mn), to upgrade the Municipal Council to a Municipal Corporation.[17][18] But the minimum requirement for the formation of a Municipal Corporation is having a population of at least 300,000 which the Council falls short of. Hence, a decision has been made by the PMC to incorporate the adjacent nodes of Navi Mumbai under CIDCO's jurisdiction and surrounding villages in the proposed Panvel Municipal Corporation. This would add another 593,000 people under its administration[19] thereby clearing the first hurdle.

The decision propounds that instead of merging the administration of newly developed nodes of Navi Mumbai including New Panvel, Kamothe, Kalamboli, Kharghar, parts of Uran and developing nodes of Ulwe and Dronagiri, which are currently overseen by CIDCO, with NMMC, they should be incorporated under the proposed Panvel Municipal Corporation. This opinion is the result of a political agenda. The fact is, of the total 16 nodes of Navi Mumbai 10 are under NMMC and the rest are under CIDCO. NMMC's jurisdiction is limited within the boundaries of the Thane district, which is a foothold of the Nationalist Congress Party, while the remaining nodes are in the Raigad district, where parties like Bharatiya Janata Party, Shiv Sena and Peasants and Workers Party of India are most active. Hence, the local politicians, especially Panvel MLAPrashant Thakur, oppose the merger of all the nodes under one Municipal Corporation citing political conspiracy.[20][21]

The proposal is to be tabled before the Maharashtra State government which has appointed an expert committee to study the feasibility of the demand to upgrade the Panvel Municipal Council to a Municipal Corporation.[17]

But there is some discontent among the residents of the Kharghar node. The residents and some NGOs from Kharghar have voiced their demand for Kharghar to be inducted under NMMC as it would provide them with better civic amenities and would make Kharghar eligible to be a part of the proposed plan of making Navi Mumbai a Smart City which includes only the area under NMMC's jurisdiction.[22] However, CIDCO has its own plan of developing the area under its jurisdiction (informally called as Navi Mumbai South) as a smart city. But its implementation is not guaranteed because CIDCO will be financing the entire project by itself as it wouldn't be getting funds from the Centre and State governments like NMMC.[23][24] Residents of Kharghar have even kicked off a "sign the petition" campaign for the local public and housing societies to sign and which would be presented to the Chief Minister of MaharashtraDevendra Fadnavis to request for inclusion of Kharghar under NMMC.[25] So far no such opposition from residents of other nodes has been reported.

Demographics[edit]

As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Navi Mumbai in 2011 is 1,119,477; out of which males and females are 611,501 and 507,976 respectively. Although Navi Mumbai city has population of 1,119,477; its urban / metropolitan population is 18,414,288 of which 9,894,088 are males and 8,520,200 are females.

In education section, the total number of literate individuals in Navi Mumbai city is 911,542. Out of this number, 519,257 are males while 392,285 are females. Average literacy rate of Navi Mumbai city is 91.57 percent of which male and female literacy was 95.05 and 87.33 percent. The sex ratio of Navi Mumbai city is 831 per 1000 males. Child sex ratio of girls is 901 per 1000 boys.

Transport[edit]

Navi Mumbai has a robust infrastructure, is well connected to other parts of the state and country and is relatively less polluted compared to Mumbai. The city has a good public transportation system with NMMT, the transport wing of NMMC, serving the bus commuters, the Mumbai suburban railway serving the train commuters and a large fleet of auto rickshaws for intra-nodal commute. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway starts at Kalamboli in Navi Mumbai.

The Mumbai suburban railway network covers most of the populated region of the city. The most important suburban stations are Vashi, Nerul, Belapur and Panvel. The stations are planned as major railway junctions. Panvel is the only mainline station and also the busiest railway station of Navi Mumbai. All outstation trains halt here for time periods varying from 5 to 20 minutes. It is an important junction, railway lines come and meet here and it is connected to almost all parts of India. A new broad gauge line is functional between Karjat & Panvel and currently plies three express trains.

Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) & Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) buses travel all over Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Thane, Kalyan-Dombivli-Badlapur, Panvel-Taloja, Uran-Ulwe etc. NMMT AC Volvo buses are available from Mumbai to Navi Mumbai and vice versa. The Palm Beach Marg, a 10 km and six lane road connects Vashi to CBD Belapur running parallel to the Thane creek.


NMMT Routes in Navi Mumbai

NMMT1Vashi Rly Stn to Thane Rly Stn (W) Via Turbhe Naka
NMMT2Divanagar (Airoli Sector 10) to Purna Village (Bhiwandi) Via Thane
NMMT3Ghansoli Depot to Thane Rly Stn (W) Via Patni
NMMT4Vashi Sector 06 Bus Stn to Thane Rly Stn (W) Via Kopar Khairane
NMMT6Rabale Rly Stn (E) to Alpha Lowel
NMMT8Vashi Rly Stn to Thane Rly Stn (W) Via Ghansoli Village
NMMT9Vashi Rly Stn to Ghansoli Depot
NMMT10Sanpada Rly Stn to Ghansoli Depot Via APMC Market
NMMT11Sanpada Rly Stn to Thane Rly Stn (W) Via MIDC
NMMT12Vashi Rly Stn to Thane Rly Stn (W) Via MIDC
NMMT15Nerul Sector 46/48 to DY Patil College (Nerul LP)
NMMT17Nerul Rly Stn (E) to Baman Dongri Rly Stn (Ulwe)
NMMT18Vashi Bus Stn to Ramshet Thakur Stadium (Ulwe)
NMMT19Kopar Khairane Bus Stn to CBD Belapur Bus Stn Via Sarsole
NMMT20Ghansoli Depot to Nerul Sector 46/48
NMMT21Ghansoli Depot to Artist Colony (CBD) Via Nerul (E)
NMMT22Vashi Sector 06 Bus Stn to CBD Belapur Bus Stn Via Nerul (W)
NMMT23CBD Belapur Bus Stn to Ramshet Thakur Stadium (Ulwe)
NMMT24New Panvel Rly Stn to Thane Rly Stn (W)
NMMT25Artist Colony (CBD) to DY Patil College (Nerul LP)
NMMT27Nerul Sector 46/48 to Thane Rly Stn (W)
NMMT29CBD Belapur Bus Stn to Thane Rly Stn (W) Via Nerul (E)
NMMT30Kalamboli Bus Stn to Uran
NMMT31Kopar Khairane Bus Stn to Uran
NMMT34Jui Nagar Rly Stn (E) to Kopra Village (JNPT)
NMMT38CBD Belapur Bus Stn to Nerul Rly Stn (E) Via Parsik Hill
NMMT39Ghansoli Depot to Uran
NMMT41Vashi Rly Stn to Dombivali Rly Stn (W) Via Turbhe Naka
NMMT42Vashi Rly Stn to Dombivali Rly Stn (W) Via Kopar Khairane
NMMT44CBD Belapur Rly Stn to Dombivali Rly Stn (W)
NMMT45CBD Belapur Rly Stn to Vastu Vihar (Kharghar)
NMMT46Vashi Rly Stn to Badlapur Fire Brigade Via Turbhe Naka
NMMT50Kopar Khairane Bus Stn to Panvel Rly Stn
NMMT52CBD Belapur Rly Stn to Pethali Village (Taloja) Via Kharghar
NMMT53Kharghar Rly Stn to Kharghar Sector 27
NMMT54Kharghar Rly Stn to RAF Colony (Kharghar)
NMMT55Ghansoli Depot to Pethali Village (Taloja) Via Kharghar
NMMT56Mansarovar Rly Stn to Roadpali Via Kalamboli
NMMT57Mansarovar Rly Stn to Vichumbe Village (New Panvel) Via Khanda Colony
NMMT59New Panvel Rly Stn to Usarli Khurd
NMMT60Vashi Bus Stn to Kalyan Rly Stn (W) Via Turbhe Naka
NMMT62Vashi Rly Stn to Kalyan Rly Stn (W) Via Kopar Khairane
NMMT71CBD Belapur Rly Stn to Kalyan Rly Stn (W) Via Taloja MIDC
NMMT72Panvel Rly Stn to Hikal Company
NMMT75Panvel Rly Stn to Sai Nagar
NMMT76Panvel Rly Stn to Karanjade Sector 06
NMMT77New Panvel Rly Stn to Nere Village
NMMT81Vashi Bus Stn to Thane Rly Stn (W) Via Mumbra
NMMT83Airoli Bus Stn to Thane Rly Stn (W) Via Patni
NMMT87Panvel Rly Stn to Mumbra Retibunder
NMMT100Vashi Rly Stn to Lokmanya Nagar (Thane) Via Mulund Gawanpada
NMMT103Panvel Rly Stn to Dadar (Hindmata)
NMMT112Nerul Bus Stn to Mulund Check Naka
NMMT113Patni Company to Mulund Gawanpada Via Airoli
NMMT119Airoli Bus Stn to Mantralaya
NMMT121Ghansoli Depot to Vasantrao Naik Chowk (Tardeo)
NMMT144Airoli Bus Stn to Andheri Rly Stn (E) Via Seepz
NMMTAC 62Vashi Bus Stn to Vasant Valley Kalyan (W) Via Kopar Khairane
NMMTAC 103Panvel Rly Stn to Dadar (Hindmata)
NMMTAC 105CBD Belapur Bus Stn to Bandra Bus Stn
NMMTAC 107Nerul Sector 46/48 to World Trade Centre Via Eastern Freeway
NMMTAC 108Nerul Sector 46/48 to World Trade Centre Via Eastern Freeway
NMMTAC 110Jalvayu Vihar (Kharghar) to World Trade Centre Via Eastern Freeway
NMMTAC 121Ghansoli Depot to Vasantrao Naik Chowk (Tardeo)
NMMTAC 123Jalvayu Vihar (Kharghar) to Borivali Rly Stn (E)
NMMTAC 124Nerul Sector 46/48 to Andheri Rly Stn (E) Via Ghatkopar
NMMTAC 125Jalvayu Vihar (Kharghar) to Borivali Rly Stn (E) Via Eastern Express Highway
NMMTAC 131Airoli Bus Stn to Borivali Rly Stn (E) Via Ghodbunder Road

BEST Routes in Navi Mumbai

BEST501Kurla Rly Stn (E) to Airoli Bus Stn
BEST502Tata Power Stn to Nerul Sector 46/48
BEST504Wadala Depot to Jalvayu Vihar (Kharghar)
BEST505Bandra Depot to CBD Belapur Bus Stn
BEST506Jijamata Udyan (Byculla) to Nerul Bus Stn
BEST507Santacruz Rly Stn (E) to Nerul Bus Stn Via CSLR
BEST511Mulund (W) Check Naka Bus Stn to Nerul Bus Stn Via Ghatkopar
BEST512Mulund (W) Check Naka Bus Stn to Nerul Bus Stn
BEST513Gawanpada Mulund (E) to Vashi Rly Stn
BEST517Santacruz Rly Stn (E) to APMC Market (Vashi)
BEST521Vasantrao Naik Chowk (Tardeo) to Ghansoli Gharonda
BEST522Marol Depot to Vashi Rly Stn
BEST523Dindoshi Depot to Millenium Business Park (Mahape)
BEST524Borivali Rly Stn (E) to APMC Market (Vashi)
BEST525Dindoshi Depot to APMC Market (Vashi)
BEST533Andheri Rly Stn (W) to APMC Market (Vashi)
BEST545Andheri Rly Stn (E) to Airoli Bus Stn
BESTC-50World Trade Centre to Vashi Bus Stn Via Eastern Freeway
BESTC-53Ghatkopar Depot to Kalamboli Bus Stn


Auto rickshaws provide inter as well as intra nodal public transport across the city. Taxis operating from designated taxi stands provide the means to travel to further destinations. Taxis charge a fixed rate approved by the R.T.O. details of which can be found on popular local transit apps of the city.[26]

Navi Mumbai has the largest container terminal in India, Jawaharlal Nehru Port at Nhava Sheva near Uran.[27] It is well connected by road and rail, and handles approximately 56.13% of India's container traffic.[28][29] The Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport, 30 km away, is the nearest airport to the city.

International Airport[edit]

Main article: Navi Mumbai International Airport

The Navi Mumbai International Airport[30] will be constructed in southern Panvel area near Ulwe. It will be built through Public Private Partnership (PPP), with private sector partners having 74% equity and the Airports Authority of India (AAI) and Government of Maharashtra (through CIDCO) each holding 13%.

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has already given techno-feasibility clearance to the airport. The central government provided cabinet approval for the construction on 31 May 2007. While an opening date of 2020 has been mooted, as of March 2018, construction has yet to start.[31]

Metro Rail[edit]

Main article: Navi Mumbai Metro

The Navi Mumbai Metro is an under construction rapid transit system in Navi Mumbai. A network of as many as six lines have been planned of which four lines will be constructed by CIDCO in the Navi Mumbai south region, the second and third line of the metro system will be constructed by NMMC and MMRDA respectively. The first line of the metro system is being constructed by CIDCO. This line includes three phases. In the first phase, the line will join the CBD Belapur station on the Mumbai suburban railway and Pendhar village. In the second phase, the line will join Taloja MIDC and Khandeshwar node (which will be extended to the Navi Mumbai International Airport. And in the third phase, the line will link the Pendhar and Taloja MIDC metro stations. The first phase of the line 1 is slated to become operational by 2017 and CIDCO has claimed to make the network of its four lines fully operational by 2019-2020 along with operationalisation of the city's International Airport.

Infrastructure[edit]

Basic infrastructure worth ₹40 billion (US$610 million) is already in place.[32] The city boasts a reliable supply of electricity from various sources, and excellent motoring conditions, with numerous flyovers, broad roads, and parking lots. The main problem which the residents face is poor connectivity with Mumbai, with only two road links between the two cities and a single rail line. A hovercraft service from Vashi to Colaba and the CBD to Colaba did not succeed due to the high cost of tickets and maintenance. Cidco is planning to relaunch its hovercraft service from Vashi, Belapur, Nerul, and Airoli to Gateway of India.

Services[edit]

There are adequate utility services, banks, restaurants, malls, multiplexes and other shops in Navi Mumbai. Vashi boasts several shopping malls such as Center One, Palm Beach Galleria, Citi Center, Raghuleela Mall and Inorbit Mall along with Seawoods Grand Central in Seawoods and Little World Mall and Glomax in Kharghar. Throughout Navi Mumbai supermarkets and malls like Apna Bazaar, More, Spencer's, Reliance Fresh, Spinach, Daily bazar and Fairprice cater to the shopping needs of the residents. DMart has launched five hypermalls in Navi Mumbai.

Leading banks such as the Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, South Indian Bank, State Bank of India, Union Bank, Saraswat Bank, Bank of Baroda, Bank of Maharashtra, State Bank of Hyderabad, Citibank India, ICICI Bank, and HDFC Bank have their branches and ATMs around Navi Mumbai. The Reserve Bank of India has served the people of Navi Mumbai since 2001.

Navi Mumbai has some three- and five-star hotels.

Commerce[edit]

The Navi Mumbai Special Economic Zone (SEZ) located in the nodes of Dronagiri and Kalamboli are planned to provide commercial growth and employment to the city. Positioned en route the proposed Navi Mumbai Airport, this megaproject has attracted investments of close to 40,000 crores.[citation needed] Navi Mumbai is a new hub for newly incorporated companies & start ups to establish their base in Mumbai.[33] As per the list of newly incorporated companies in Navi Mumbai around 500 new & startups companies were registered in and around the region every month

Sports[edit]

Cricket is the prevalent sport in the city. Navi Mumbai has its own International Cricket Ground in Nerul called the DY Patil Stadium which hosts IPL T-20 matches, including hosting the 2008 and 2010 IPL finals. It is also the home ground for the Indian Super Leaguefootball team Mumbai City FC. Fr. Agnel Stadium in Vashi is the training ground of the team.

Navi Mumbai has an Olympic-size swimming pool at Nerul. CIDCO has proposed two 18-hole golf course academies at Nerul and Kharghar. There are plans to have sports facilities in the proposed 80 hectare central park being developed in Kharghar. The CIDCO has also constructed an 11-hole golf course at Kharghar in Central Park Kharghar.

Education[edit]

Main article: Schools and Colleges in Navi Mumbai

Provision of schools and colleges was priority in the planning of Navi Mumbai. The nodes (townships) were designed to provide one primary school per 5,000 populations, one high school for 12,500 populations and one college for 50,000 population.

Each of the nodes is self-sufficient in terms of providing quality education. Students are given access to various syllabi, including the State Education Board, CBSE and ICSE patterns. Other than this, CIDCO encouraged private institutions also.

About 22.5% of the total population is considered to be school-going children. Most students attend school and college within their node (township). 76% of the students walk to their school or college, 12% use public transport, 10% use bicycles and only 2% travel by school bus.

A number of premier schools and colleges have been set up in Navi Mumbai. And not just local students, but students from Mumbai and even outside come to Navi Mumbai in their quest for quality education. No wonder, Navi Mumbai is soon acquiring the title of educational hub.[34]

St. Augustines High School is one of the oldest schools in the city.

  • D.A.V Public School, Nerul
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya,Ongc,Panvel
  • Delhi Public School, Nerul
  • Don BoscoSeniorSecondary School, Nerul
  • St. Xaviers High School, Nerul
  • National Institute of Fashion Technology
  • Ryan International Schools
  • Apeejay School, Nerul
  • Apeejay School, Kharghar
  • Avalon Heights International School
  • Fr. Agnel Multipurpose School and Junior College
  • New Horizon Scholars School, Airoli
  • D.A.V Public School, Airoli
  • IIM Indore (Mumbai Campus)

References[edit]

Panvel Suburban Railway Station
Trivandrum Rajdhani Express at Platform No. 7 of Panvel Rly Stn
  1. ^"CIDCO :: Population". Cidco.maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  2. ^"Introduction". CIDCO. Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  3. ^"Navi Mumbai A Cruel Joke". Mumbai Mirror. 30 December 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2016. 
  4. ^"Swachh Survekshan -2016 – ranks of 73 cities". pib.nic.in. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  5. ^"Search Anything In India :: Grotal.com". Grotal.com. Retrieved 10 August 2017. [permanent dead link]
  6. ^"CIDCO :: Evolution of Navi Mumbai". Cidco.maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  7. ^"Master class with Charles Correa". Mumbai Mirror. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  8. ^Mehta, H.: Man who built Navi Mumbai is in GujaratThe Times of India, 21 February 2010. Accessed 27 January 2014.
  9. ^ abChatterjee, Piu (7 July 2014). "Urban Villages in Globalized India: Degenerative Growth Processes in Navi Mumbai". Inclusive. Journal of the Kolkata Centre for Contemporary Studies. ISSN 2278-9758. Archived from the original on 26 October 2015. 
  10. ^"Slum population-- 2001 Census"(PDF). Visionmumbai.org. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  11. ^Srivastav, Amit (15 December 2012). "Slum-hub". Afternoon Despatch & Courier, Mumbai. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  12. ^Vijapurkar, Mahesh (18 June 2015). "Navi Mumbai was Charles Correa's dream: Here's how it turned into a nightmare". Firstpost. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  13. ^"Slum and Non-Slum Population, Sex ratio and Literacy rate by City/ Towns, in Maharashtra State 2001". ENVIS Centre on Population and Environment (Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India). Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  14. ^Bhosale, Arpika (12 April 2013). "23,000 illegal two-storey buildings in Navi Mumbai". Free Press Journal. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2015. 
  15. ^The Economic Times (20 November 2012). "Ulwe in Mumbai emerges as top destination for realty investment" (News). Indiatimes.com. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  16. ^"Elected Members". Nmmconline.com. Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  17. ^ abU K Nambiar (12 December 2015), Talks begin to give corporation status to PMC, Navi Mumbai: TOI, TNN, retrieved 20 December 2015 
  18. ^Bhavika Jain (9 December 2015), 2 new civic bodies on cards, Mumbai: TOI, TNN, retrieved 20 December 2015 
  19. ^Umesh K Parida (20 December 2015), PMC’s civic body plan includes 3 more villages, Navi Mumbai: TOI, TNN, retrieved 20 December 2015 
  20. ^George Mendonca (28 November 2013), Panvel MLA opposes merger of developed nodes with Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation, Navi Mumbai: TOI, TNN, retrieved 20 December 2015 
  21. ^Rahul M Tawade (29 November 2013), Upgrade Panvel council to corporation level rather merging it with civic body, says Prashant Thakur, Panvel: DNA, DNA, retrieved 20 December 2015 
  22. ^Sunnidh Poojary (19 August 2015), Include Kharghar in NMMC jurisdiction, Kharghar: DNA, retrieved 20 December 2015 
  23. ^CIDCO announces Rs 34,000-crore smart city project, Mumbai: The Hindu

There are many environmental issues in India. Air pollution, water pollution, garbage and pollution of the natural environment are all challenges for India. Nature is also causing some drastic effects on India. The situation was worse between 1947 through 1995. According to data collection and environment assessment studies of World Bank experts, between 1995 through 2010, India has made one of the fastest progress in the world, in addressing its environmental issues and improving its environmental quality.[1][2] Still, India has a long way to go to reach environmental quality similar to those enjoyed in developed economies. Pollution remains a major challenge and opportunity for India.

Environmental issues are one of the primary causes of disease, health issues and long term livelihood impact for India.

Law and policies[edit]

Main article: Environmental policy of India

British rule of India saw several laws related to environment. Amongst the earliest ones were Shore Nuisance (Bombay and Kolaba) Act of 1853 and the Oriental Gas Company Act of 1857. The Indian Penal Code of 1860, imposed a fine on anyone who voluntarily fouls the water of any public spring or reservoir. In addition, the Code penalised negligent acts. British India also enacted laws aimed at controlling air pollution. Prominent amongst these were the Bengal Smoke Nuisance Act of 1905 and the Bombay Smoke Nuisance Act of 1912. Whilst these laws failed in having the intended effect, British-enacted legislations pioneered the growth of environmental regulations in India.

Upon independence from Britain, India adopted a constitution and numerous British-enacted laws, without any specific constitutional provision on protecting the environment. India amended its constitution in 1976. Article 48(A) of Part IV of the amended constitution, read: The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. Article 51 A(g) imposed additional environmental mandates on the Indian state.

Other Indian laws from recent history include the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1974, the Forest (Conservation) Act of 1980, and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act of 1981. The Air Act was inspired by the decisions made at Stockholm Conference. The Bhopal gas tragedy triggered the Government of India to enact the Environment (Protection) Act of 1986. India has also enacted a set of Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules in 2000.

In 1985, Indian government created the Ministry of Environment and Forests. This ministry is the central administrative organisation in India for regulating and ensuring environmental protection.

Despite active passage of laws by the central government of India, the reality of environmental quality mostly worsened between 1947 and 1990. Rural poor had no choice, but to sustain life in whatever way possible. Air emissions increased, water pollution worsened, forest cover decreased.

Starting in the 1990s, reforms were introduced. Since then, for the first time in Indian history, major air pollutant concentrations have dropped in every 5-year period. Between 1992 and 2010, satellite data confirms India's forest coverage has increased for the first time by over 4 million hectares, a 7% increase.[3]

Possible causes[edit]

Some have cited economic development as the cause regarding the environmental issues. It is suggested that India's growing population is the primary cause of India's environmental degradation. Systematic studies challenge this theory. Empirical evidence from countries such as Japan, England and Singapore, each with population density similar to or higher than that of India, yet each enjoying environmental quality vastly superior to India's, suggests population density may not be the only factor affecting India's issues.[4]

Major issues[edit]

Major environmental issues are forest and agricultural degradation of land, resource depletion (such as water, mineral, forest, sand, and rocks), environmental degradation, public health, loss of biodiversity, loss of resilience in ecosystems, livelihood security for the poor.[5]

The major sources of pollution in India include the rapid burning of fuelwood and biomass such as dried waste from livestock as the primary source of energy, lack of organised garbage and waste removal services, lack of sewage treatment operations, lack of flood control and monsoon water drainage system, diversion of consumer waste into rivers, cremation practices near major rivers, government mandated protection of highly polluting old public transport, and continued operation by Indian government of government owned, high emission plants built between 1950 and 1980.[6][7][8][9][10]

Air pollution, poor management of waste, growing water scarcity, falling groundwater tables, water pollution, preservation and quality of forests, biodiversity loss, and land/soil degradation are some of the major environmental issues India faces today.[11]

India's population growth adds pressure to environmental issues and its resources. Rapid urbanization has caused a buildup of heavy metals in the soil of the city of Ghaziabad, and these metals are being ingested through contaminated vegetables. Heavy metals are hazardous to people's health and are known carcinogens.[12][13]

Population growth and environmental quality[edit]

There is a long history of study and debate about the interactions between population growth and the environment. According to a British thinker Malthus, for example, a growing population exerts pressure on agricultural land, causing environmental degradation, and forcing the cultivation of land of poorer as well as poorer quality. This environmental degradation ultimately reduces agricultural yields and food availability, famines and diseases and death, thereby reducing the rate of population growth.

Population growth, because it can place increased pressure on the assimilative capacity of the environment, is also seen as a major cause of air, water, and solid-waste pollution. The reslt, Malthus theorised, is an equilibrium population that enjoys low levels of both income and Environmental quality. Malthus suggested positive and preventative forced control of human population, along with abolition of poor laws.

Malthus theory, published between 1798 and 1826, has been analysed and criticised ever since. The American thinker Henry George, for example, observed with his characteristic piquancy in dismissing Malthus: "Both the jayhawk and the man eat chickens; but the more jayhawks, the fewer chickens, while the more men, the more chickens." Similarly, the American economist Julian Lincoln Simon criticised Malthus's theory.[14] He noted that the facts of human history have proven the predictions of Malthus and of the Neo-Malthusians to be flawed. Massive geometric population growth in the 20th century did not result in a Malthusian catastrophe. The possible reasons include: increase in human knowledge, rapid increases in productivity, innovation and application of knowledge, general improvements in farming methods (industrial agriculture), mechanisation of work (tractors), the introduction of high-yield varieties of wheat and other plants (Green Revolution), the use of pesticides to control crop pests.[15]

More recent scholarly articles concede that whilst there is no question that population growth may contribute to environmental degradation, its effects can be modified by economic growth and modern technology.[16] Research in environmental economics has uncovered a relationship between environmental quality, measured by ambient concentrations of air pollutants and per capita income. This so-called environmental Kuznets curve shows environmental quality worsening up until about $5,000 of per capita income on purchasing parity basis, and improving thereafter.[17] The key requirement, for this to be true, is continued adoption of technology and scientific management of resources, continued increases in productivity in every economic sector, entrepreneurial innovation and economic expansion.

Other data suggest that population density has little correlation to environmental quality and human quality of life. India's population density, in 2011, was about 368 human beings per square kilometre. Many countries with population density similar or higher than India enjoy environmental quality as well as human quality of life far superior than India. For example: Singapore (7148 /km2), Hong Kong (6349 /km2), South Korea (487 /km2), Netherlands (403 /km2), Belgium (355 / km2), England (395 /km2) and Japan (337/ km2).

Water pollution[edit]

Main article: Water pollution in India

India has major water pollution issues. Discharge of untreated sewage is the single most important cause for pollution of surface and ground water in India. There is a large gap between generation and treatment of domestic waste water in India. The problem is not only that India lacks sufficient treatment capacity but also that the sewage treatment plants that exist do not operate and are not maintained.[18] The majority of the government-owned sewage treatment plants remain closed most of the time due to improper design or poor maintenance or lack of reliable electricity supply to operate the plants, together with absentee employees and poor management. The waste water generated in these areas normally percolates in the soil or evaporates. The uncollected wastes accumulate in the urban areas cause unhygienic conditions and release pollutants that leaches to surface and groundwater.[18]

According to a World Health Organization study,[19] out of India's 3,119 towns and cities, just 209 have partial sewage treatment facilities, and only 8 have full wastewater treatment facilities. Over 100 Indian cities dump untreated sewage directly into the Ganges River.[20] Investment is needed to bridge the gap between 29000 million litre per day of sewage India generates, and a treatment capacity of mere 6000 million litre per day.[21]

Other sources of water pollution include agriculture run off and small scale factories along the rivers and lakes of India. Fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture in northwest have been found in rivers, lakes and ground water.[22] Flooding during monsoons worsens India's water pollution problem, as it washes and moves all sorts of solid garbage and contaminated soils into its rivers and wetlands.

Water resources[edit]

According to NASA groundwater declines are highest on Earth between 2002 and 2008 in northern India. Agricultural productivity is dependent on irrigation. A collapse of agricultural output and severe shortages of potable water may influence 114 million residents in India. In July 2012, about 670 million people or 10% of the world’s population lost power blame on the severe drought restricting the power delivered by hydroelectric dams.[23]

Air pollution[edit]

Main article: Air pollution in India

Air pollution in India is a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion. Air pollution is also the main cause of the Asian brown cloud, which is causing the monsoon to be delayed. India is the world's largest consumer of fuelwood, agricultural waste and biomass for energy purposes. Traditional fuel (fuelwood, crop residue and dung cake) dominates domestic energy use in rural India and accounts for about 90% of the total. In urban areas, this traditional fuel constitutes about 24% of the total. Fuel wood, agri waste and biomass cake burning releases over 165 million tonnes of combustion products into India's indoor and outdoor air every year.[24][25] These biomass-based household stoves in India are also a leading source of greenhouse emissions contributing to climate change.[26]

The annual crop burning practice in northwest India, north India and eastern Pakistan, after monsoons, from October to December, are a major seasonal source of air pollution. Approximately 500 million tons of crop residue is burnt in open, releasing smoke, soot, NOx, SOx, PAHs and particulate matter into the air. This burning has been found to be a leading cause of smog and haze problems through the winter over Punjab, cities such as Delhi, and major population centers along the rivers through West Bengal.[27][28][29] In other states of India, rice straw and other crop residue burning in open is a major source of air pollution.[30]

Vehicle emissions are another source of air pollution. Vehicle emissions are worsened by fuel adulteration and poor fuel combustion efficiencies from traffic congestion and low density of quality, high speed road network per 1000 people.[31][32][33]

On per capita basis, India is a small emitter of carbon dioxide greenhouse. In 2009, IEA estimates that it emitted about 1.4 tons of gas per person, in comparison to the United States’ 17 tons per person, and a world average of 5.3 tons per person. However, India was the third largest emitter of total carbon dioxide in 2009 at 1.65 Gt per year, after China (6.9 Gt per year) and the United States (5.2 Gt per year). With 17 percent of world population, India contributed some 5 percent of human-sourced carbon dioxide emission; compared to China's 24 percent share.[34][35]

The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passed in 1981 to regulate air pollution and there have been some measurable improvements.[36] However, the 2012 Environmental Performance Index ranked India as having the poorest relative air quality out of 132 countries.[37]

Solid waste pollution[edit]

See also: Solid waste policy in India

Trash and garbage is a common sight in urban and rural areas of India. It is a major source of pollution. Indian cities alone generate more than 100 million tons of solid waste a year. Street corners are piled with trash. Public places and sidewalks are despoiled with filth and litter, rivers and canals act as garbage dumps. In part, India's garbage crisis is from rising constion. India's waste problem also points to a stunning failure of governance.[7] The tourism regions in the country mainly hill stations are also facing this issue in the recent years.[38]

In 2000, India's Supreme Court directed all Indian cities to implement a comprehensive waste-management programme that would include household collection of segregated waste, recycling and composting. These directions have simply been ignored. No major city runs a comprehensive programme of the kind envisioned by the Supreme Court.

Indeed, forget waste segregation and recycling directive of the India's Supreme Court, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development estimates that up to 40 percent of municipal waste in India remains simply uncollected. Even medical waste, theoretically controlled by stringent rules that require hospitals to operate incinerators, is routinely dumped with regular municipal garbage. A recent study found that about half of India's medical waste is improperly disposed of.

Municipalities in Indian cities and towns have waste collection employees. However, these are unionised government workers and their work performance is neither measured nor monitored.

Some of the few solid waste landfills India has, near its major cities, are overflowing and poorly managed. They have become significant sources of greenhouse emissions and breeding sites for disease vectors such as flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, rats, and other pests.[39]

In 2011, several Indian cities embarked on waste-to-energy projects of the type in use in Germany, Switzerland and Japan.[40] For example, New Delhi is implementing two incinerator projects aimed at turning the city’s trash problem into electricity resource. These plants are being welcomed for addressing the city’s chronic problems of excess untreated waste and a shortage of electric power. They are also being welcomed by those who seek to prevent water pollution, hygiene problems, and eliminate rotting trash that produces potent greenhouse gas methane. The projects are being opposed by waste collection workers and local unions who fear changing technology may deprive them of their livelihood and way of life.[41]

Noise pollution[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(March 2009)

Noise pollution or noise disturbance is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life. Noise-wise India can be termed as the most polluted country in the world.[42] The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines and transportation systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, and trains.[1][2] In India the outdoor noise is also caused by loud music during festival seasons.Outdoor noise is summarized by the word environmental noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas.

Indoor noise can be caused by machines, building activities, and music performances, especially in some workplaces. Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused by outside (e.g. trains) or inside (e.g. music) noise.

High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease.[43] In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss.

The Supreme Court of India which is in New Delhi gave a significant verdict on noise pollution in 2005.[44] Unnecessary honking of vehicles makes for a high decibel level of noise in cities. The use of loudspeakers for political purposes and for sermons by temples and mosques makes noise pollution in residential areas worse.

In January 2010, Government of India published norms of permissible noise levels in urban and rural areas.[45]

Land or Soil pollution[edit]

In March 2009, the issue of Uranium poisoning in Punjab attracted press coverage. It was alleged to be caused by fly ash ponds of thermal power stations, which reportedly lead to severe birth defects in children in the Faridkot and Bhatinda districts of Punjab. The news reports claimed the uranium levels were more than 60 times the maximum safe limit.[46][47] In 2012, the Government of India confirmed[48] that the ground water in Malwa belt of Punjab has uranium metal that is 50% above the trace limits set by the United Nations' World Health Organization. Scientific studies, based on over 1000 samples from various sampling points, could not trace the source to fly ash and any sources from thermal power plants or industry as originally alleged. The study also revealed that the uranium concentration in ground water of Malwa district is not 60 times the WHO limits, but only 50% above the WHO limit in 3 locations. This highest concentration found in samples was less than those found naturally in ground waters currently used for human purposes elsewhere, such as Finland.[49] Research is underway to identify natural or other sources for the uranium.

Greenhouse gas emissions[edit]

India was the third largest emitter of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas, in 2009 at 1.65 Gt per year, after China and the United States . With 17 percent of world population, India contributed some 5 percent of human-sourced carbon dioxide emission; compared to China's 24 percent share. On per capita basis, India emitted about 1.4 tons of carbon dioxide per person, in comparison to the United States’ 17 tons per person, and a world average of 5.3 tons per person.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^The Little Green Data Book, The World Bank, 2010 
  2. ^Environment Assessment, Country Data: India, The World Bank, 2011 
  3. ^"Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010"(PDF). FAO. 2011. 
  4. ^Henrik Urdal (July 2005). "People vs. Malthus: Population Pressure, Environmental Degradation, and Armed Conflict Revisited". Journal of Peace Research. 42 (4): 417–434. doi:10.1177/0022343305054089. 
  5. ^Environmental Issues, Law and Technology – An Indian Perspective. Ramesha Chandrappa and Ravi.D.R, Research India Publication, Delhi, 2009, ISBN 978-81-904362-5-0
  6. ^Milind Kandlikar, Gurumurthy Ramachandran (2000). "2000: India: THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION IN URBAN INDIA: A Synthesis of the Science". Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. 25: 629–684. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.25.1.629. 
  7. ^ ab"Drowning in a Sea of Garbage". The New York Times. 22 April 2010. 
  8. ^Steve karthik kjournal=International Journal of Environmental Health Research; Tripathi, Anshuman; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Bouskill, Nik; Broadaway, Susan C.; Pyle, Barry H.; Ford, Timothy E.; et al. (2006). "The role of water use patterns and sewage pollution in incidence of water-borne/enteric diseases along the Ganges river in Varanasi, India". 16 (2): 113–132. doi:10.1080/09603120500538226. PMID 16546805. 
  9. ^Klement Tockner and Jack A. Stanford (2002). "Riverine flood plains: present state and future trends". Environmental Conservation. 29 (3): 308–330. doi:10.1017/S037689290200022X. 
  10. ^Sushil and Batra; Batra, V (December 2006). "Analysis of fly ash heavy metal content and disposal in three thermal power plants in India". Fuel. 85 (17–18): 2676–2679. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2006.04.031. 
  11. ^"India: Country Strategy paper, 2007–2013"(PDF). European External Action Service, European Union. 2007. 
  12. ^Chabukdhara, Mayuri; Munjal, Amit; Nema, Arvind K.; Gupta, Sanjay K.; Kaushal, Rajendra Kumar (2016-04-02). "Heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown around peri-urban and urban-industrial clusters in Ghaziabad, India". Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal. 22 (3): 736–752. doi:10.1080/10807039.2015.1105723. ISSN 1080-7039. 
  13. ^Chabukdhara, Mayuri; Nema, Arvind K. (2013-01-01). "Heavy metals assessment in urban soil around industrial clusters in Ghaziabad, India: probabilistic health risk approach". Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 87: 57–64. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.08.032. ISSN 1090-2414. PMID 23116622. 
  14. ^Simon J.L. 1981. The ultimate resource; and 1992 The ultimate resource II.
  15. ^Antony Trewavas: "Malthus foiled again and again", in Nature 418, 668–670 (8 August 2002), retrieved 28 December 2008
  16. ^Maureen Cropper; Charles Griffiths (May 1994). "The Interaction of Population Growth and Environmental Quality"(PDF). The American Economic Review. 84 (2): 250–254. Archived from the original(PDF) on 24 April 2012. 
  17. ^Selden Thomas M. and Song Daqing (1994). "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?"(PDF). Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 27 (2): 147–162. doi:10.1006/jeem.1994.1031. 
  18. ^ ab"Evaluation Of Operation And Maintenance Of Sewage Treatment Plants In India-2007"(PDF). CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD, Ministry of Environment & Forests. 2008. 
  19. ^World Health Organization (1992), Our Planet, our Health: Report of the WHO Commission on Health and Environment, Geneva
  20. ^National Geographic Society. 1995. Water: A Story of Hope. Washington (DC): National Geographic Society
  21. ^"Status of Sewage Treatment in India"(PDF). Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt of India. 2005. 
  22. ^"Buddha Nullah the toxic vein of Malwa". Indian Express. 21 May 2008. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. 
  23. ^Decade of drought: a global tour of seven recent water crises Guardian 12.6.2015
  24. ^Ganguly; et al. (2001). "INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA – A MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN"(PDF). Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. 
  25. ^David Pennise and Kirk Smith. "Biomass Pollution Basics"(PDF). The World Health Organisation. 
  26. ^Kirk Smith et al., Greenhouse Implications of Household Stoves: An Analysis for India, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, Vol. 25: pp 741-763
  27. ^Fires in Northwest India NASA, US Government (2008)
  28. ^Tina Adler, RESPIRATORY HEALTH: Measuring the Health Effects of Crop Burning, Environ Health Perspect. 2010 November; 118(11), A475
  29. ^Streets et al. (2003), Biomass burning in Asia: Annual and seasonal estimates and atmospheric emissions, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 17(4)
  30. ^Gadde et al., Air pollutant emissions from rice straw open field burning in India, Thailand and the Philippines, Environmental Pollution, Volume 157, Issue 5, May 2009, Pages 1554–1558
  31. ^"The Asian Brown Cloud: Climate and Other Environmental Impacts"(PDF). United Nations Environmental Programme. 2002. Archived from the original(PDF) on 26 May 2012. 
  32. ^"Urban Air Pollution, Catching gasoline ad diesel adulteration"(PDF). The World Bank. 2002. 
  33. ^"Gridlocked Delhi: six years of career lost in traffic jams". India Today. 5 September 2010. 
  34. ^"CO2 EMISSIONS FROM FUEL COMBUSTION HIGHLIGHTS, 2011 Edition"(PDF). International Energy Agency, France. 2011. 
  35. ^"Country Analysis Brief: India". U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2011. 
  36. ^"Emissions and Pollution in South Asia". The World Bank. 2010. Archived from the original on 12 April 2011. 
  37. ^"Data Explorer :: Indicator Profiles – Environmental Performance Index". Yale University. 2012. Archived from the original on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012. 
  38. ^Kumar, S., Dhar, H, Nair, V. V., Bhattacharya, J. K., Vaidya, A. N. and Akolkar, A. B. (2016). Characterization of municipal solid waste in high altitude sub-tropical regions. Environmental Technology 37 (20), 2627 – 2637. doi: 10.1080/09593330.2016.1158322
  39. ^"India: Urbanisation, sustainable development and poverty alleviation, INTL 442"(PDF). University of Oregon, USA. Spring 2010. Archived from the original(PDF) on 8 May 2013. 
  40. ^"What is waste to energy?". Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants. 2010. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. 
  41. ^"Indian waste workers fear loss of income from trash-to-electricity projects". The Washington Post. 20 November 2011. 
  42. ^Freedom from noise pollution will be true independence
  43. ^[1]
  44. ^"Noise Pollution Restricting use of loudspeakers, Court: Supreme Court of India, Justices: Lahoti and Bhan". ECOLEX. 18 July 2005. 
  45. ^"AMENDMENT To NOISE POLLUTION REGULATION AND CONTROL RULES, 2000 AND SETTING UP OF A NATIONAL NOISE MONITORING NETWORK"(PDF). Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt of India. 4 January 2010. 
  46. ^Yadav, Priya (2 April 2009). "Uranium deforms kids in Faridkot". The Times of India. 
  47. ^Jolly, Asit (2 April 2009). "Punjab disability 'uranium link'". BBC News. 
  48. ^Uranium in Ground Water Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India (2012)
  49. ^Atomic Energy Report - Malwa Punjab Uranium Q&A Lok Sabha, Government of India (2012)

Further reading[edit]

  • Compendium of Environment Statistics India 2013, Annual Report and Data, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Central Statistical Organisation, Government of India, New Delhi.
  • Compendium of Environment Statistics India 2011, Annual Report and Data, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Central Statistical Organisation, Government of India, New Delhi.
  • India, Diagnostic Assessment of Select Environmental Challenges The World Bank, 2013
  • 2010–2011 Annual Report of India's Ministry of Environment & Forests – Policies and Priorities, 2011
  • Unite for Children – UNICEF's Soap Stories and Toilet Tales Report, 2010
  • India: Total Sanitation Campaign; a UNICEF Case Study, 2010
  • National Environment Policy of India, 2006
  • Inheriting the World: The Atlas of Children’s Health and the Environment, 2004
  • The Asian Brown Cloud: Climate and Other Environmental Impacts, 2002
  • Mahesh Prasad Singh; J.K. Singh; Reena Mohanka (1 January 2007). Forest Environment and Biodiversity. Daya Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-7035-421-5. 

External links[edit]

A satellite picture, taken in 2004, shows thick haze and smoke along the Ganges Basin in northern India. Major sources of aerosols in this area are believed to be smoke from biomass burning in the northwest part of India, and air pollution from large cities in northern India. Dust from deserts in Pakistan and the Middle East may also contribute to the mix of aerosols.
Floods are a significant environmental issue for India. It causes soil erosion, destruction of wetlands and wide migration of solid wastes.
Public dumping of rubbish alongside a road in Kolkata.
A rural stove using biomass cakes, fuelwood and trash as cooking fuel. Surveys suggest over 100 million households in India use such stoves (chullahs) every day, 2–3 times a day. It is a major source of air pollution in India, and produces smoke and numerous indoor air pollutants at concentrations 5 times higher than coal. Clean burning fuels and electricity are unavailable in rural parts and small towns of India because of poor rural highways and limited energy generation infrastructure.
Trash and garbage disposal services, responsibility of local government workers in India, are ineffective. Solid waste is routinely seen along India's streets and shopping plazas. Image shows solid waste pollution along a Jaipur street, a 2011 image.
Waste collection truck in Ahmedabad, Gujurat
Greater adjutant perched on a pile of trash and solid waste in Assam.
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