Nature And Self Reliance Essay By Emerson

In his book titled Essays, “Self-Reliance” follows “History” so that a balanced and self-contained unit can be created out of these two. Abounding with short aphorisms, the essay begins with an admonition to believe in the true self, which is considered in essence identical with the Universal Spirit: “Trust thyself: every heart vibrates to that iron string.” Emerson then holds infancy, which is favorably contrasted with adulthood, as a model for one to follow in the cultivation of a spirit of independence or nonconformity. His metaphorical use of a babe as a model of nonconformity is a radical twist of Christ’s elevation of it as an emblem of total dependence on God.

As does Wordsworth, Emerson regards a person’s growth normally as a process of losing one’s moral sentiment or spirit of nonconformity. Society is considered to have an adverse effect on the growth of each individual’s independent spirit, whereas solitude may contribute to it. Senseless philanthropy, which encourages dependence on outside help, is thus also thought to be detrimental. When Emerson states that one should live by one’s instinct, whether or not it be from the devil, he is attempting to use exaggeration to shock his audience; his idea is that the inherent moral sentiment, which makes one self-sufficient, cannot come from the devil. Total trust in one’s emotions may well result in contradiction when one’s emotions change, however; noting this, Emerson simply retorts that life itself is an organic process, inevitably involving contradiction. Acting in accordance with true feeling, he believes, will automatically bring about a sound life.

Viewed in light of self, history is thus the biography of a few unusually powerful figures. Having emphasized the importance of nonconformity, he begins to explore the philosophical basis for self-reliance. According to Emerson, there is an instinct or intuition in each individual drawing upon the Universal Spirit as the ever-dependable guiding principle. Because of the identification of intuition with the Universal Spirit, one is simply following its command when one acts in accordance with one’s intuition. The presence of the self-sufficing and self-contained Universal Spirit in each individual thus justifies one’s living in and for the present without having to refer either to the past or to the future.

Whereas Christ alone has traditionally been regarded as the Word made flesh, Emerson regards every human potentially as a reincarnation of the Word. Consequently, regret of the past and prayer for the future as a means to effect private ends are both diseases of human will and should be avoided. Traveling with the hope to see something greater than the self, in Emerson’s view, would simply be senseless. As a result of this moralistic view, society, like nature, may change but never advance. Typical of his conclusions, the end of this essay, which repeats the theme of self-reliance and predicts the subjugation of Chance under human will based on self-reliance, sounds greatly optimistic.

In both Nature and Self-Reliance, Ralph Waldo Emerson focuses upon humanity.  Just as individuals are part of the "idea of man," so, too, the are individuals part of the "Over-Soul."  Thus, the idea of nature correlates to the idea of man since both are part of a universality in which people can see their souls reflected.  For instance, in Self-Reliance, Emerson writes,

And we are now men, and must accept in the highest mind the same transcendent destiny...obeying the Almighty effort...Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of your own mind....Nothing can bring you peace but the triumph of principles.

Likewise, in Nature, principles triumph when "all egotism vanishes" as man becomes "a transparent eyeball" that becomes part of something far greater than himself. Moreover, the power to produce delight resides, not in nature, but in man himself. For, "Nature always wears the colors of the spirit."

Thus, the burden of responsibility is upon the individual himself; in Self-Reliance, man must maintain his individuality and not allow society to be in "conspiracy" against him; likewise, in Nature, man must allow Nature to take him to a "higher thought."

In both his essays, Emerson admonishes his audience to live free existences in which they are ready to receive messages from their own identity or from nature. However, Nature is perceived as an organic whole in the essay of this name, while in Self Reliance Emerson advocates individualism and rejects being part of a whole. Nevertheless, both the self and Nature are mediums through which all can learn.

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