Halalan 2016 Tagalog Essay Example

Why Making the Right Choice in the 2016 Election is Crucial

Posted by Juana Pilipinas on April 11, 2014 · 57 Comments 

The nation needs to prepare early for the 2016 national election. It is a very important election because Filipinos will choose their leader for the next six years and their choice could either make or break the progressive streak that the incumbent administration has started.

Political pundits are in consensus that the Philippines needs another term or two of good governance in order to have a sustainable economic base that will propel it to prosperity.

The countdown to the 2016 Presidential election has begun. VP Binay has officially announced his presidential ambitions, dropped hints on who will be his possible running mates, started building a new party, and courted members for his coalition. Others have kept mum about their intentions. There is no doubt they are also working behind the scenes: organizing, bribing, favor trading, vote-buying, lining up celebrity endorsers and all the fun stuff that Filipino politicians do while waiting to unveil their election machine.

Enough of the Filipino political culture potshots, let us move to something positive like what the incumbent administration has accomplished so far.

The positive political, social and economic progress is earning the Philippines some global respect.

Good news about the Philippines is spreading around the world. The recent Mindanao peace agreement is a positive factor in how the world sees the Philippines. World opinion also lauded its decision of going to the world tribunal about the South Sea dispute with China. Its upgraded credit rating to investment grade based on “’robust economic performance,’ ongoing fiscal and debt consolidation, political stability and improved governance” is already attracting much-needed local and international capital as well as foreign investment inflows. The prepayment of the government’s foreign debt service looks good. The budget deficit for FY2013 is just 1.4% of the GDP. Furthermore, the Philippines has improved its ranking in several global economic indices.

The efforts to clean the government of dirty politics and corrupt officials have not gone unnoticed. Among 177 countries profiled by Transparency International, Philippines went from 105th in 2012 to 94th for 2013. On the scale of 0-100, 0 being corrupt and 100 being clean, the Philippines received a score of 36 as opposed to 32 the previous year. There is no doubt that as the corruption sweep continues, the Philippines’ ranking and scores will continue to ascend.

Whoever replaces President Benigno Aquino III in 2016 has humongous shoes to fill. He or she will have to be able to continue making good policy decisions to hold on to the newfound positive global feedback.

The citizens of the Philippines have the duty and responsibility to choose the best presidential candidate in 2016. Superficial qualities such as personality and celebrity should be shunned. A new yardstick based on morals and principles should be the new norm in voting.

      10 Qualities to Look for in a Presidential Candidate

1. Integrity/ Honesty – Does your chosen candidate have a track record of being an honest person? Dishonest leaders had been voted into office before with great costs to the citizenry. Money stolen by a mendacious official is money earmarked for public infrastructures and services the citizens will never receive. A corrupt pilferer of government coffers should not receive any vote.

2. Ability to delegate – Has your pick demonstrated an executive ability to hire, supervise and monitor people? The president has the duty to pick and appoint upstanding people to the Executive Office of the President and the Cabinet. The government is a complex system with a lot of duties and responsibilities to its citizens that is dispensed through its various offices and departments. The President needs the ability to delegate, as he cannot do all the tasks needed to run a country by himself.

3. Confidence/Security– Does he/she exudes confidence and appears secure? A confident and secure leader has no problem believing and engaging others. He/she does not have the need for arrogance or feeling of superiority in order to convey his presence. As they say in the Southern US, “ If you have to tell someone you are a lady, chances are you’re not.” It is je ne sais quoi and someone with confidence and security radiates with it.

4. Communication Skills – Does he/she communicate his/her intentions effectively with people from all walks of life? Communication is done not only by speaking but also by listening. A good leader speaks in clear and concise manner and listens attentively. A good president will need communication skills to keep the citizens up-to date with the government’s performance, successes and failures as well as to find out what his constituents want or need from the government.

5. Sense of Humor / Positive Attitude – Does he/she smile a lot and not take himself/herself seriously? Is he/she able to diffuse a difficult situation by looking at its lighter side? A good-natured leader will often make better decisions, as he/she is not afraid to show his/her humanity in public.

6. Commitment/ Passion – Has he/she shown commitment and passion in her past jobs? Committed and passionate people make highly effective leaders, as they are tenacious and persistent. They will see to it that a goal is met and a vision is realized. Their focus and perseverance often pays off so betting on a committed and passionate candidate will likely yield positive results.

7. Ability to Inspire – Does he/she has achievements that motivate others to emulate? Is he/she sincere and forthright? The ability to inspire is an important quality, as people look up at the president as a role model. “Do what I say but don’t do what I do” will breed societal resistance and sanctimony.

8. Competence – Does he/she has the necessary skills, knowledge and abilities to govern a morally and fiscally insolvent country? A competent president does not need to be an expert in all theories and practices of public administration but he/she needs to be self-motivated and a fast learner.

9. Courage – Is he/she decisive and able to make tough calls when it’s needed? A courageous person is not fearless. He/she just has the ability to face fear, danger, pain, uncertainty, intimidation and other difficulties without warping or caving in. Calm self-assurance raises the level of confidence in one’s decisions.

10. Servanthood/Selflessness – Does he/she put people first as his/her priority? Does he/she eschew personal power and wealth building on the back of the masses? The president is still a public servant who is tasked to look after the well-being of the populace. He/she works for the citizenry and not the other way around.

The world is finally watching the Philippines closely and with great interest. Exercising the right to vote is a privilege as well as a great responsibility, especially in 2016. The future of the Philippines is in the 2016 voters’ court. If they do not drop the ball, the long-awaited tiger economy might be just around the corner.

Please choose wisely and vote responsibly.

← 2010May 9, 20162022 →
Turnout81.5% 7.2%
CandidateRodrigo DuterteMar RoxasGrace Poe
Running mateAlan Peter CayetanoLeni RobredoFrancis Escudero
Popular vote16,601,9979,978,1759,100,991

CandidateJejomar BinayMiriam Defensor Santiago
Running mateGregorio HonasanBongbong Marcos
Popular vote5,416,1401,455,532

Map showing the official results taken from provincial and city certificates of canvass. The inset shows Metro Manila.

The Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections of 2016 was held on Monday, May 9, 2016, as part of the 2016 general election. This was the 16th presidential election in the Philippines since 1935 and the sixth sextennial presidential election since 1986.

Incumbent president Benigno Aquino III was ineligible for re-election, pursuant to the 1987 Philippine Constitution. Therefore, this election determined the 16th President. The position of president and vice president are elected separately, thus the two winning candidates could come from different political parties.

Rodrigo Duterte led the preliminary count with 38.5% of the vote.[2] Congress had met in late May to canvass the results, issued an official result with Rodrigo Duterte and Leni Robredo emerging as the winners of the presidential and vice presidential races, respectively. They were proclaimed on May 30, in the House of Representatives.

Electoral system[edit]

Main article: Philippine presidential election

According to the Constitution of the Philippines, the election is held every six years after 1992, on the second Monday of May. The incumbent president is term limited. The incumbent vice president may run for two consecutive terms. The plurality voting system is used to determine the winner: the candidate with the highest number of votes, whether or not one has a majority, wins the presidency. The vice presidential election is a separate election, is held on the same rules, and voters may split their ticket. Both winners will serve six-year terms commencing on the noon of June 30, 2016 and ending on the same day six years later.[3]


See also: Philippine presidential election, 2010 and Philippine Senate election, 2013

Senator Benigno Aquino III of the Liberal Party, who ran on an anti-corruption platform, won the 2010 election with 42.08% of the votes defeating Joseph Estrada, a former president who was deposed in 2001 after scandals of massive corruption, and several others. Meanwhile, Estrada's running mate, Makati Mayor Jejomar Binay of the Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-Laban), defeated Aquino's running mate, Senator Mar Roxas of the Liberal Party and several others, in the vice presidential election.[4] Roxas eventually accused Binay of electoral fraud in the Presidential Electoral Tribunal, citing that some of his votes were recorded as null votes.[5]

Both Binay and Roxas were subsequently appointed by Aquino to his cabinet, with Binay heading the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council,[6] and Roxas first being given the Transportation and Communications portfolio, then finally named as Secretary of the Interior and Local Government, after the ban of appointing losing candidates expired a year after Aquino took office on June 30, 2010.[7] As of 2014, the tribunal had still not yet acted upon the preliminary motions of both parties and on Binay's counter-protest; the suit is expected to still not have been resolved by the time President Aquino's term expires.[8]

For the midterm 2013 Senate election, Aquino and Roxas formed the Team PNoy coalition;[9] Estrada's PMP and Binay's PDP-Laban forged an electoral alliance, the United Nationalist Alliance (UNA).[10] Team PNoy won nine Senate seats against UNA's three.[11]

In March 2014, PDP-Laban withdrew from UNA, a week after Binay resigned as party chairman, due "to differences with its leaders". Party president Aquilino Pimentel III had a public quarrel with Binay over Juan Miguel Zubiri's inclusion in UNA's 2013 senatorial slate, whom Pimentel had accused of cheating in the 2007 Senate election.[12]

Several other stalwarts of UNA, such as senators Juan Ponce Enrile and Jinggoy Estrada, who had manifested his intention to run as Binay's running mate, and others such as Senator Bong Revilla of Lakas-CMD, who is planning to run for president, are currently detained due to their involvement in the pork barrel scam.[13][14] No personalities linked with the Liberal Party but also involved in the scam were investigated; these actions by the government, which it says is part of its anti-corruption drive, have been cited by UNA as "political persecution".[15]

In July 2014, Renato Bondal, a defeated mayoral candidate in the 2013 Makati mayoral election, filed plunder cases against Makati mayor Jejomar Binay, Jr. and his father, the vice president, to the Ombudsman. By the next month, a subcommittee of the Blue Ribbon Committee composed solely of Pimentel, along with Nacionalista Party members Alan Peter Cayetano and Antonio Trillanes IV, began Senate hearings against Binay on his alleged corruption while serving as mayor of Makati, beginning with the alleged overpriced annex building of the Makati City Hall.[16] It was followed by hearings on alleged corruption on deals supplying Makati senior citizens with birthday cakes,[17] an agricultural estate in Rosario, Batangas that Binay allegedly owns,[18] the allegedly overpriced Makati Science High School,[19] and the relocation of Makati residents to Calauan, Laguna to a community without basic necessities.[20]

Binay had consistently denied any wrongdoing,[21] and from owning the Rosario estate,[22] but had never appeared at the Senate.[23] UNA Secretary General JV Bautista branded the investigations as part of the "Operation Plan Stop Nognog", insinuating on Binay's dark skin, with Roxas, Cayetano and Trillanes allegedly behind it to prevent Binay from becoming president. He accused billionaire businessman Salvador Zamora as its financier.[24] In May 2015, the Court of Appeals ordered the 242 bank accounts belonging to Binay to be frozen for six months, when it granted the petition of the Anti-Money Laundering Council and of the Ombudsman. Binay's camp had alleged certain people from the Liberal Party to be behind the freeze order,[25] a charge President Aquino, in a Bombo Radyo interview, himself denied.[26]

By late May 2015, the subcommittee report recommending the filing of a plunder (corruption worth more than 50 million pesos) complaint against Binay was signed by all three subcommittee members and Grace Poe.[27] By early June, ten senators had already signed the subcommittee report, making it official and available to be debated upon in the Senate floor.[28] A month later, Binay sued Cayetano, Trillanes and several others for 200 million pesos in damages at the Makati Regional Trial Court for "well-organized and orchestrated effort" to damage his reputation and worsen his chances of becoming president.[29]

Meanwhile, Aquino held several meetings with Roxas, Poe and Francis Escudero on who should be the standard bearer of the Liberal Party. While none of them had announced their preferences at that time, Aquino is expected to announce his preferred candidate after his final State of the Nation Address late in July. Congressional heads Franklin Drilon and Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. denied that Liberal Party members had been dissatisfied with Aquino's indecision, saying that the party is still united.[30]

On early July, Binay launched his party, the United Nationalist Alliance.[31] Later that month, Aquino did endorse Roxas for president, which the latter accepted.[32] In August, Rodrigo Duterte, the Davao City mayor who had been a subject of a strong online following urging him to run, announced his intention to retire from politics after his mayoral term ends in 2016.[33] Poe announced her intention to seek the presidency by mid-September,[34] followed by Escudero's announcing that he'll be her running mate a day later.[35] Several days later, Cayetano announced his vice presidential candidacy, preferring to be Duterte's running mate.

On October 3. Trillanes formally announced his vice presidential campaign as an independent, supporting Poe's presidential campaign.[36] Days later, Leni Robredo, the representative from Camarines Sur and widow of former Secretary of the Interior and Local GovernmentJesse Robredo who died in a plane crash in 2012, accepted the offer of the Liberal Party to be Roxas' running mate.[37] Also on that day, Senator Bongbong Marcos announced his candidacy as vice president.[38] A week later, after being nominated by UNA, Senator Gregorio Honasan announced that he would be Binay's running mate.[39] A day later, on the launch of her new book, Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago announced her presidential candidacy;[40] a couple of days later, she announced that Marcos would be her running mate.[41]

At the final day of the filing of candidacies, Duterte did not show up; instead, the PDP-Laban nominated Martin Diño, chairman of the Volunteers Against Crime and Corruption.[42] At the end of the day, more than a hundred people registered as presidential candidates, after a 5-day long filing period. These include current OFW Family Club representative Roy Señeres running under the Partido ng Manggagawa at Magsasaka, former representative from Iloilo Augusto Syjuco, who is running as an independent, and Engineer Juanita Mendoza Trocenio under the Partido Bagong Maharlika (PBM). For the vice presidency, nineteen people manifested their intention to run, including former assemblyman from Ifugao Zosimo Jesus Paredes II, who is also running under the Partido Bagong Maharlika.

AC Nielsen Philippines showed on its monitoring report between Jan 1 and Nov 30 that presidential candidate Binay spent 595 million pesos for campaign advertisements on television (before the campaign period). Vice presidentiable Cayetano led the spenders in the race, spending 398 million pesos worth of TV advertisements.[43] Binay, denied the claim.[44] An article from The Manila Times reported also that the administration's bet, Mar Roxas, led the list of the biggest ad spenders in the country with P774 million in television advertisement expenses from January to December, in a survey also conducted by AC Nielsen.[45]


Main article: List of candidates in the Philippine presidential election, 2016

An initial list of 8 presidential candidates were uploaded on the certified candidates list in the commission's database on January 21, 2016.[46] But only trimmed down to 5, due to declaration by the commission en banc of Dante Valencia as a nuisance candidate and the withdrawal of certificates of candidacies of Romel Mendoza and Roy Señeres.[47][48][49]

This is the final and certified list of candidates for the elections to be included in the ballots:[50][51]Jejomar Binay,[52]Miriam Defensor Santiago,[53]Rodrigo Duterte,[54][55]Grace Poe,[56]Mar Roxas.[57][58]

Although Señeres withdrew his candidacy and later died, his name is still included on the printed ballots.


Under the Constitution of the Philippines, the President and Vice President are elected separately.



Jejomar Binay[edit]

Main article: Jejomar Binay presidential campaign, 2016

When questioned by the media at the Coconut Palace in September 2011, Vice President Jejomar Binay (PDP-Laban) confirmed his plans of running as president.[59]

By May 2014, Binay began his search for a running mate. As his potential running mate Senator Jinggoy Estrada in jail due to his implication in the PDAF scam,[60] Binay's offers were declined by JV Ejercito,[61]Manny Villar (via wife Cynthia Villar),[62]Vilma Santos (via husband Ralph Recto),[63]Mar Roxas,[64]Grace Poe,[65]Rodrigo Duterte[66] and Joseph Estrada.[67] Binay's daughter Abigail, also the Representative from Makati, said that Binay would accept anyone as his running mate except for Antonio Trillanes, and that she prefers Grace Poe, however Sen. Bongbong Marcos was the most preferred by UNA officials to be his running mate.[68] On June 12, Independence Day, speech in Iloilo, President Aquino said that he could only offer Binay the conduct of a clean and honest election, but not an outright endorsement.[69]

On June 22, Binay resigned from the Aquino cabinet, both as presidential adviser on Overseas Filipino Workers' concerns and as chairman of the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council, but did not say why.[70] Two days later, Binay addressed the public from his Coconut Palace offices, branding the current administration as "manhid at palpak" (insensitive and bumbling), but did not mention Aquino by name.[71] His running mate was confirmed to be Gregorio Honasan.

Miriam Defensor Santiago[edit]

Main article: Miriam Defensor Santiago presidential campaign, 2016

In a press conference on July 2, 2014, Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago (People's Reform Party) revealed she was suffering from stage 4 lung cancer and she might run as president for the third time if it goes into remission. Called "the Iron Lady of Asia" and a recipient of the Ramon Magsaysay Award, she was the widely expected winner of the 1992 election, but lost after an inexplicably unscheduled power outage during the counting of votes. She then ran for a Senate seat in 1995 and won in a landslide victory. She has become one of the most popular senators since then, owing to her broad media visibility as well as to the high number of laws and bills she authored, a record that stands up to this day. She once again ran for president in 1998, but lost, citing black propaganda against her during the campaign.[72]

By November 2014, Santiago, in a tweet, announced that "In the 2016 presidential elections, when I am rid of my lung cancer, I intend to claim the presidency I won in 1992." In a letter to the Senate, Santiago said that more than 90% of the cancer cells have regressed.[73]

Santiago announced her candidacy for president in the launch of her book Stupid is Forever on October 13, 2015. She is currently running under the People's Reform Party, the same party in which she ran under during her 1992 and 1998 presidential campaigns.[40] Days later, Santiago announced that Senator Bongbong Marcos would be her vice presidential running mate, a decision that largely earned criticism from progressives as Bongbong is the scion of the former dictator Ferdinand Marcos. Her platform stands on the effective and efficient upholding and implementation of national and state-recognized international laws, enhancement of the agriculture industry with a focus on irrigation and farm-to-market roads, enhancing all seaports and airports in the country, creating at least one major government project in all provinces and all regions in the Philippines, building and highlighting the country's diplomatic affairs in the international level while skyrocketing the country's defense capabilities, and eradicating graft and corruption, which she believes to be the cause of poverty and inefficiency in the country.[41] Presidential candidate Rodrigo Duterte gave in an interview in November 2015 his comments on his fellow candidates' qualities, stating that "[i]f you want extraordinary competence and integrity, vote for Miriam."[74]

Rodrigo Duterte[edit]

Main article: Rodrigo Duterte presidential campaign, 2016

Early in 2015, Duterte made hints to the media of his intent to run for the presidency come 2016, with a widely praised promise of abolishing Congress altogether in favor of a Parliament should he win.[75][76][77] Earlier, in February 2014, Duterte was reportedly enjoying the support of several netizens lauding his performance as mayor of Davao City, especially in maintaining peace and order in the city, but he was quick to shrug off calls for him to run for President, saying he was not qualified for a higher public office.[78] A year later, Duterte said in a Baguio federalism forum that he'll only run for president "if (it is) to save the republic." Duterte cited the need of about 10 to 15 billion pesos for a campaign war chest as what was keeping him from running.[79] Days later, however, Duterte "re-entered" PDP-Laban; he maintained he never left the party, and only had to stand under a local party banner (Hugpong) in the 2013 local election in order to ensure his victory.[80] PDP-Laban president Aquilino Pimentel III later said that Duterte was among his party's options for a presidential candidate for 2016, noting that the party's position on federalism coincides with Duterte's advocacy.[81] A few days after reports came out saying incumbent Vice-President Jejomar Binay (a presidential aspirant) was eyeing Duterte as his possible running mate, Duterte issued a statement saying he was not interested in running for a national post.[82]

In September 2014, Duterte already declined presidential aspirant and incumbent senator Miriam Defensor-Santiago's offer to be her running mate, saying that instead of picking him as the senator's running mate, she could ask former defense secretary Gilberto Teodoro, Jr. instead.[83] However, in October 2015, Santiago chose Bongbong Marcos as her running mate.[84]

Later, during the June 21, 2015 airing of his weekly program in a local channel (Gikan Sa Masa, Para Sa Masa), Duterte stated that he was considering suggestions from his friends and supporters to run for President. He also added that he will stop expressing non-interest in starting a presidential campaign.[85]

On September 7, 2015, in a press conference held at Davao City, Duterte officially declared he will not be running for President in 2016 and apologized to all of his supporters on the decision. He additionally stated that he might retire from politics after his term as mayor of Davao City ends in 2016 and his daughter runs for the office. Other factors of his possible retirement include age, health concerns and his family's objections.[86] Mixed reactions erupted in social media hours after the declaration and several supporters still continued to petition online, urging the mayor to revert his decision.[87]

On September 26, 2015, a large number of supporters gathered at the Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park, Manila to urge Duterte to officially run for the presidency in 2016.[88][89] Despite being an undeclared candidate, Pulse Asia Research Director Ana Tabunda still considered Duterte "a serious contender" as he was already ranked 4th in a presidential survey done by Pulse Asia from late August to early September, as well as in a Social Weather Stations survey.[90] Duterte's long-time political rival and critic, former House SpeakerProspero Nograles, also expressed his support for Duterte if ever the latter decided to run for the presidency.[91] On September 29, incumbent Senator Alan Peter Cayetano declared his intention to run for the 2016 Vice-Presidential post in a press event held in Davao City and considered Duterte his first choice as running mate for the presidential post; this eventually led to a meeting between the two parties.[92] A day after meeting with Cayetano, Duterte met with another incumbent senator, Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos, Jr., who also went to Davao City to personally talk to Duterte. Marcos was reportedly considering running for the Vice-Presidential post as well; Marcos had not yet made any formal proclamation at that time. As in the Cayetano meeting, Duterte still declared that he was not running for president.[93]

On October 13, 2015, in a press conference held at a local hotel in Davao City, Duterte finalized his decision not to run for the presidency, with daughter Sara's objection being pointed out as one of the main contributors.[94]

On October 15, 2015, Duterte, through a representative, filed his candidacy for Mayor of Davao City at the local elections office.[95] A day later, Duterte's daughter Sara, posted on her Instagram account a photo of her candidacy as mayor of Davao City, while hinting that her father would seek a higher post and withdraw his mayoral re-election bid.[96] However, it was received that it was not received by the commission in Davao City.[97] Duterte’s possibility of substitution until December 10 was opened after Martin Diño, father of celebrity Liza Diño and chairman of the Volunteers Against Crime and Corruption and former barangay captain of Brgy. San Antonio, Quezon City, filed his candidacy for president on the last minute. Diño is a member of PDP-Laban, the same party advocating the federalism system where Duterte belongs.[98] Diño clarified that there was a "clerical error" on his submitted candidacy (running for Pasay City mayor, instead of president). On their general meeting held in Pasay City on October 26, members of PDP-Laban had expressed their support to Diño in his presidential bid.[99] On October 21, Duterte told CNN Philippines' News.PH interview that there was still a chance he would change his mind. The decision, however, would have to be made by the PDP-Laban.[100]

On October 27, PDP-Laban confirmed that Duterte will substitute as the party's presidential bet if Diño withdraws or is disqualified by the Commission of Elections.[101] Two days later, Diño withdrew his presidential bid and named Duterte as his substitute because of a possibility that Diño might be declared as a nuisance candidate by the commission.[102]

On November 21 in a gathering held in his alma mater San Beda College, Duterte formally announced his presidential bid and also finally accepted Alan Peter Cayetano's offer to be his running mate.[103] Duterte said he is disappointed over the decision made by the Senate Electoral Tribunal regarding Grace Poe's citizenship as well as the current administration's handling of the ‘laglag-bala’ issue.[104] Duterte further stated that he will file his candidacy immediately after he reached out to his party.[105] However, the legality of Duterte's substitution for Diño was questioned by some electoral lawyers because of an error made in Diño's certificate of candidacy that made him a Pasay mayoral bet despite being a resident of Quezon City.

Duterte topped all other candidates, including former front-runner Grace Poe, in a survey published November 25, 2015 and held by Pulse Asia.[106] Poe said that the survey was 'inconclusive' and 'not reflective' and claimed it was made by Duterte's camp.[107] The day after, Duterte filed his certificate of candidacy at the commission main office in Manila and withdrew his bid for Mayor of Davao City (for which he will be substituted to by his daughter, Sara).[108]

Grace Poe[edit]

Main article: Grace Poe presidential campaign, 2016

Grace Poe's surprising first-place finish in the 2013 Senate election as an independent made her a likely contender for the presidency but she dismissed any plans of running in April 2014, saying she was not considering "anything higher at this point" and even declaring that Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago is the most qualified to run as president [109]

On President Aquino's state visit to Canada in May 2015, the president disclosed that he had met with Poe prior to the trip, although he didn't say what the meeting was for.[110] A couple of days later, Poe confirmed that she did meet with Aquino. Poe said that "We discussed his intention to choose a candidate who, first and foremost, has the trust of the nation, and, secondly, has the potential to win in the election, in order to sustain the reforms especially against corruption and the pro-poor programs of the government." Poe expects more meetings with Aquino in June.[111]

On June 2, UNA interim president Toby Tiangco, responding to calls for Jejomar Binay to "come clean" on his corruption allegations, said in a press conference that Poe is not qualified to run either for president or vice president after citing her certificate of candidacy in the 2013 Senate election, which stated that she is a resident for six years and six months; adding three years for the 2016 election, nine years and six months or six months short mandated by the constitution.[112] Two days later, before a Senate session, Poe said that she wrote "six years and six months" because it was in April 2006 that her home in the United States was sold. Poe, who had been a resident of the United States for 13 years, returned to the Philippines after her father Fernando Poe, Jr., a presidential candidate in the 2004 elections, died in December 2004. She said that she has proof that she has been living in the Philippines since February 2005. She said, that despite being a congressman for Navotas, Tiangco lives elsewhere, and that her decision on whether to run in 2016 is "50%" sure. Poe also observed that the attacks from UNA only began after she signed the Senate Blue Ribbon subcommittee report recommending plunder and graft cases against Binay.[113]

On September 16, at a gathering at the University of the Philippines Diliman in Quezon City, Poe announced her intention to seek the presidency, saying that "No one person or group has a monopoly on a straight path advocacy" of President Aquino, a shot against the Aquino party's nominee Roxas, who is advocating for continuation of the "Daang Matuwid" (straight path) advocacy of Aquino; while also hitting the Administration programs. This resulted in the Palace questioning their Daang Matuwid advocacy contrary to their speeches.[114]

On December 1, the commission's second division had formally disqualified Poe from running as President in the 2016 elections and cancelled her filed Certificate of Candidacy for not failing to meet with citizenship and residency requirements. The division voted 3-0 in favor of the petition filed by Attorney Estrella Elamparo to disqualify Poe. The decision stated that Poe had failed to comply with the 10-year residency requirement, mandatory for a presidential candidate.[115]

On December 23, 2015, the commission en banc disqualified Poe from running as president in the 2016 elections for failing to meet the 10-year residency requirement.[116][117] Poe said she would appeal the disqualification to the Supreme Court. On December 28, 2015 the Supreme Court issued two temporary restraining orders against the decision of the commission en banc.[118]

On March 8, 2016, voting 9–6, the Supreme Court voted to affirm Poe's natural-born status and 10-year residency.[119][120] On April 9, 2016, the Supreme Court declared their ruling as final and executory.[121]

Mar Roxas[edit]

Main article: Mar Roxas presidential campaign, 2016

Senate President Franklin Drilon, when describing the Liberal Party's plans for Interior Secretary Mar Roxas' in 2016, told the media in January 2013 that "so far as the LP is concerned, [and] in so far as I am concerned, we believe that he is best qualified for 2016."[122] Two years later, Drilon told DZIQ AM radio that Roxas had expressed his interest internally within the party.[123] Several Liberal Party stalwarts had by then expressed that Roxas should declare his intentions at that time,[124] with some such as Budget Secretary Florencio Abad suggesting that Roxas may slide down to run for the vice presidency again.[125]

Aquino had a series of meetings between Roxas, Grace Poe and Francis Escudero from prior to Aquino's state visit to Canada in May, until days before his final State of the Nation Address in July, including a July dinner with all three of them at the Bahay Pangarap, Aquino's official residence at the Malacañang Palace complex. While Roxas was seen as Aquino's choice to succeed him, another question was who would be Roxas' running mate, as Poe had earlier said that she'd rather run with Escudero as her running mate.[126]

On July 31, 2015, at an event dubbed as "A Gathering of Friends", Roxas formally accepted the Liberal Party's nomination after he was officially endorsed by President Benigno Aquino III in the presence of their political allies at the Club Filipino, San Juan, where Roxas had announced his decision to withdraw from the 2010 presidential election and give way to Aquino's presidential bid. Aquino also announced his candidacy there on September 9, 2009.[32] On the same day, Roxas formally launched his campaign website.

Map of the results of the 2010 vice presidential election.
Makati City Hall (taller building to the right) as viewed from the Pasig River; the allegedly overpriced annex is the building to the left.
  1. ^ abCayetano, Marcos and Trillanes are all members of the Nacionalista Party, but failed to get that party's nomination; instead, all of them are running as independents.
  2. ^Trillanes is supporting Poe's presidential campaign, although he is not her running mate.
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